Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Discrimination

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Discrimination. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Discrimination paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Discrimination, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Discrimination paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



War





On August nd, 10 Iraqi military forces invaded and occupied


the small Arab state of Kuwait. The order was given by Iraqi


Order custom research paper on Discrimination


dictatorial president Saddam Hussein. His aim was apparently to take


control Kuwait’s oil reserves (despite its small size Kuwait is a huge


oil producer; it has about 10 per cent of the world’s oil reserves ).


Iraq accused Kuwait, and also the United Arab Emirates, of breaking


agreements that limit oil production in the Middle East. According


to Saddam Hussein, this brought down world oil prices severely and


caused financial loss of billions of dollars in Iraq’s annual revenue.


Saddam Hussein had the nearly hopeless task of justifying the


invasion. He plead the fact that Kuwait had been part of the Ottoman


province of Basra, a city in the south of Iraq. However, the Ottoman


province collapsed after World War I and today’s Iraqi borders were


not created until then. There was also a further and more obvious


blunder in a bid to justify this illegal invasion. Baghdad, the


capital of Iraq, had namely recognized Kuwaiti independence in 16.


Furthermore, Hussein claimed that Kuwait had illegally pumped oil from


the Iraqi oil field of Rumaila and otherwise conspired to reduce


Iraq’s essential oil income.


By invading Kuwait, Iraq succeeded in surprising the entire


world. The USA ended her policy of accommodating Saddam Hussein, which


had existed since the Iran-Iraq war. Negative attitude toward Iraq was


soon a worldwide phenomenon. The United Nations Security Council


passed 1 resolutions condemning the invasion. The ultimate decision


was to use military force if Iraq did not withdraw unconditionally


by January 15, 11. Then, when the deadline was set, it was time to


start preparing for the worst-the war. President George Bush


confronted little difficulty in winning Americans’ support for the


potential war against Iraq. However, the government found it difficult


to decide upon and state one overriding reason for going to war. Was


it to oppose aggression or was it just to protect global oil supplies?


Other powers were more directly concerned as consumers of Persian Gulf


oil, but they were not as eager to commit military force, to risk


their youth in battle and to pay for the costs of the war. Critics of


President Bush continued to maintain that he was taking advantage of


the issue of energy supplies in order to manipulate the U. S. public


opinion in favor of war.


After consulting with U. S. Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney in


early August 10, King Fahd of Saudi Arabia invited American troops


onto Saudi soil. He had seen Kuwait’s destiny; therefore, he wanted


protection. It was also the interest of the USA to stop any further


advantage of the Iraqi army. The deployment was called “Operation


Desert Shield.” These troops were armed with light, defensive


weaponry.


On November 8, 10 President Bush announced a military buildup


to provide an offensive option, “Operation Desert Storm,” to force


Iraq out of Kuwait. The preparation of the operation took two and


a half months and it involved a massive air- and sea lift. Finally, in


January 11, the U. S. Congress voted to support Security Council


resolution 660. It authorized using “all necessary means” if Iraq did


not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15. Shrugging off this final


warning, Saddam Hussein resolutely maintained the occupation of


Kuwait. The United States established a broad-based international


coalition to confront Iraq militarily and diplomatically. The


military coalition consisted of Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia,


Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt,


France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Honduras, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco,


the Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland,


Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Syria,


Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United


States. The war also was financed by countries which were unable


to send in troops. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were the main donors. More


than $5 billion was pledged and received.


Before the war, it appeared obvious that Iraq would have very


little chance against the Coalition. The relative strength between the


parties was extremely unequal. The most critical difference was that


the Coalition had a total of 600 aircraft, over three times more


than Iraq’s 800 aircraft. Most Arab observers thought Hussein would


not last more than six months. Lieutenant General Khalid bin Sultan,


the commander of the Arab coalition forces, gave Iraq’s leader only 40


days, and repeated this prediction many times. Iraq’s prospect was


dreary.


President George Bush waited two days after the UN deadline for


Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait before ordering the Coalition to begin


action against Iraq. The winds of Desert Storm began howling across


Iraq on January 17, 11, at .0 am Baghdad time. Bhagdad was bombed


fiercely by the coalition’s fighter airplanes in the first night of


the war. An interesting fact is that several weeks before this, US


intelligence agents successfully inserted a computer virus into Iraqs


military computers. It was designed to disable much of Baghdads


air-defense system.


To minimize casualties, the coalition forces, under the command


of U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf, pursued a strategy beginning with


five weeks of intensive air attacks and ending with a ground assault.


Drawing on its 1,800 planes, land- and carrier-based, the United


States flew the greatest number of sorties. The British, French, and


Saudis made up most of the rest. Besides the tremendous air power, the


coalition deployed technologically advanced weapon systems, such as


the unmanned Tomahawk cruise missile, advanced infrared targeting that


illuminated Iraqi tanks buried in the, sand and laser-guided bombs,


“smart bombs.” Its use of brand new aircraft that never before had


been engaged in combat, such as British Tornados and U. S. F-117A


Stealth fighters, gave the Coalition an accuracy and firepower that


overwhelmed the Iraqi forces. The large-scale usage of air force and


latest technology made the war short and saved great numbers of


Coalition soldiers’ lives.


After establishing air superiority, coalition forces disabled


Iraq’s command and control centers, especially in Baghdad and Al


Bashrah. This caused the communication to fail between Baghdad and the


troops in the field. The next stage was to attack relentlessly Iraq’s


infantry, which was dug in along the Saudi-Kuwaiti border, and the


elite 15,000 man Republican Guard in southeastern Iraq and northern


Kuwait. Iraq retaliated by using mobile launchers to fire Scud


missiles at Saudi Arabia and Israel, a noncombatant coalition.


Overall, Hussein’s forces launched Scuds. The United States


countered this threat with Patriot antimissile missiles, called also


“Scudbusters,” and commando attacks on Scud launchers.


Patriot missiles gave an engagement rate of nearly 6 per cent.


The coalition’s air raids on Iraq’s infantry lowered Iraqi soldiers’


morale dramatically. It is easy to sense in the following quote from


an Iraqi lieutenant’s war diary the powerlessness and fear that the


soldiers felt during air attacks by the Coalition


“ February 11 I was awakened this morning by the noise of an


enemy air raid. I ran and hid in the nearby trench. I had breakfast


and afterwards something indescribable happened. Two enemy planes


came toward us and began firing at us, in turn, with missiles,


machine guns, and rockets. I was almost killed. Death was a yard


away from me. The missiles, machine guns and rockets didnt let up.


One of the rockets hit and pierced our shelter, which was


penetrated by shrapnel. Over and over we said, Allah, Allah,


Allah. One tank burned and three other tanks belonging to rd


Company, which we were with, were destroyed. That was a very bad


experience. Time passed and we waited to die. The munitions dump of


the 68th Tank Battalion exploded. A cannon shell fell on one of the


soldiers positions, but, thank God, no one was there. The soldiers


were somewhere else. The attack lasted about 15 minutes, but it


seemed like a year to me. I read chapters in the Quran. How hard


it is to be killed by someone you dont know, youve never seen


and, cant confront. He is in the sky and youre on the ground. Our


ground resistance is magnificent. After the air raid, I gave


great thanks to God and joined some soldiers to ask how each of


them was. While I was doing that, another air attack began.


February at 000 hours.”


The ground war began at 800 p.m. on February and lasted exactly


100 hours. This phase featured a massively successful outflanking


movement of the Iraqi forces. Schwarzkopf used a deceptive maneuver by


deploying a large number of forces as if to launch a large amphibious


landing. The Iraqis apparently anticipated that they also would be


attacked frontally and had heavily fortified those defensive


positions. Schwarzkopf instead moved the bulk of his forces west and


north in a major use of helicopters, attacking the Iraqis from their


rear. The five weeks of intensive air attack had greatly demoralized


the Iraqi front-line troops, causing wholesale desertions. Remaining


front-line forces were quickly killed or taken prisoner with minimal


coalition losses.


Iraqi front-line commanders had already lost much of their


ability to communicate with Baghdad, which made their situation even


worse. On the final night of the war, within hours of the cease-fire,


two U.S. Air force bombers dropped specially designed 5,000-pound


bombs on a command bunker fifteen miles northwest of Baghdad in a


deliberate attempt to kill Saddam Hussein. President Bushs decision


to terminate the ground war at midnight February 8, 11 was


criticized, because it allowed Baghdad to rescue a large amount of


military equipment and personnel that were later used to suppress the


postwar rebellions of its Shiite and Kurdish citizens. In his own


defense, the president asserted that the war had accomplished its


mandate. The mission, given by the Security Council, was to expel the


Iraqi forces from Kuwait and reestablish Kuwaiti independence. Bush’s


decision was probably influenced by his desire to maintain coalition


unity. A particular reason was to keep on board the Arab members, who


were increasingly unhappy at the devastation inflicted on Iraqs


infrastructure and civilian population.


Iraqi representatives accepted allied terms for a provisional


truce on March and a permanent cease-fire on April 6. Iraq agreed to


pay reparations to Kuwait, reveal the location and extent of its


stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons, and eliminate its


weapons of mass destruction. Subsequently, however, UN inspectors


complained that the Baghdad government was frustrating their attempts


to monitor Iraqi compliance, and UN sanctions against Iraq were kept


in place. The following chart shows total equipment and casualties of


the Gulf War. In addition, 00,000 Iraqi soldiers were wounded,


150,000 were deserted, and 60,000 were taken prisoner (an estimate of


U. S. Defense Intelligence Agency). The United States suffered 148


killed in action, 458 wounded, and 11 female combat deaths. 11 were


killed in nonhostile actions; they were mostly victims of friendly


fire.








Please note that this sample paper on Discrimination is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Discrimination, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Discrimination will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



No comments:

Post a Comment