Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Using material for research and not plagliarrism

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Looking for material to conduct some research and as source of reference.

Meet Jason Hershberger. He got his undergraduate degrees in computer science

and geology from the University of Southern California. He earned his M.S.

in computer science from USC in 16 at the age of . Since then, Jason has worked

Help with essay on Using material for research and not plagliarrism

for Torrey Science Corporation in San Diego, California. His job encompasses a wide

variety of tasks related to the development of modem software. Some of these include

designing software, scheduling projects, organizing teams, delegating assignments,

providing guidance to team members, and monitoring team results.

“My college course work did an excellent job in helping me become a subject

matter expert,” says Jason. “But it did very little to help me understand the people

factor. I have now learned, through experience, that the primary reason most projects

succeed or misfire is due to the people factor. The most difficult part of my

job isn’t solving technical problems. It’s things like handling people with a diverse

4 S E C T I O N O N E W h a t I s O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r ?

range of personality characteristics and learning how to communicate with these

people. For instance, motivating people to take ownership for their tasks and completing

these tasks on schedule has everything to do with my communication skills

and very little to do with my technical expertise.”

Jason Hershberger has learned what most managers learn very quickly A large

part of the success in any management job is developing good interpersonal or

people skills. Lawrence Weinbach, former chief executive at the accounting firm of

Arthur Andersen & Co., puts it this way “Pure technical knowledge is only going

to get you to a point. Beyond that, interpersonal skills become critical.”1

Although practicing managers have long understood the importance of interpersonal

skills to managerial effectiveness, business schools were slower to get the

message. Until the late 180s, business school curricula focused almost singularly

on the technical aspects of management, emphasizing courses in economics,

accounting, finance, and quantitative techniques. Course work in human behavior

and people skills received minimal attention relative to the technical aspects of management.

Over the past decade, however, business faculty have come to realize the

importance that an understanding of human behavior plays in determining a manager’s

effectiveness, and required courses on people skills have been widely added

to the curriculum.

Recognition of the importance of developing managers’ interpersonal skills is

closely tied to the need for organizations to get and keep high-performing employees.

This becomes particularly crucial in a tight labor market. Companies with

reputations as a good place to work�such as Hewlett-Packard, Lincoln Electric,

Southwest Airlines, and Starbucks�have a big advantage. A recent national study

of the U.S. workforce found that wages and fringe benefits aren’t the reason people

like their jobs or stay with an employer. Far more important is the quality of the

employees’ jobs and the supportiveness of their work environments. So having

managers with good interpersonal skills is likely to make the workplace more pleasant,

which, in turn, makes it easier to hire and keep qualified people.

According to the Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, North Carolina,

about 40 percent of new management hires fail within their first 18 months.4

When the center looked into why these new hires failed, it found that “failure to

build good relationships with peers and subordinates” was the culprit an overwhelming

8 percent of the time.5 Consistent with these findings are surveys that

have sought to determine what skills college recruiters consider most important

for job effectiveness of M.B.A. graduates.6 These surveys consistently identify interpersonal

skills as most important.

We have come to understand that technical skills are necessary but insufficient

for succeeding in management. In today’s increasingly competitive and demanding

workplace, managers can’t succeed on their technical skills alone. They also have

to have good people skills. This book has been written to help both managers and

potential managers develop those people skills.


Let’s begin by briefly defining the terms manager and the place where managers

work�the organization. Then let’s look at the manager’s job; specifically, what do

managers do?

5 S E C T I O N O N E W h a t I s O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r ?

Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate

resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Managers do their

work in an organization. This is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed

of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a

common goal or set of goals. On the basis of this definition, manufacturing and service

firms are organizations and so are schools, hospitals, churches, military units,

retail stores, police departments, and local, state, and federal government agencies.

The people who oversee the activities of others and who are responsible for attaining

goals in these organizations are managers (although they’re sometimes called

administrators, especially in not-for-profit organizations).

Management Functions

In the early part of the twentieth century, a French industrialist by the name of

Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions They plan,

organize, command, coordinate, and control.7 Today, we have condensed those

down to four planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

Since organizations exist to achieve goals, someone has to define those goals

and the means by which they can be achieved. Management is that someone. The

planning function encompasses defining an organization’s goals, establishing an

overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive hierarchy

of plans to integrate and coordinate activities.

Managers are also responsible for designing an organization’s structure. We

call this function organizing. It includes the determination of what tasks are to

be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom,

and where decisions are to be made.

Every organization contains people, and it is management’s job to direct and

coordinate those people. This is the leading function. When managers motivate

employees, direct the activities of others, select the most effective communication

channels, or resolve conflicts among members, they are engaging in leading.

The final function managers perform is controlling. To ensure that things

are going as they should, management must monitor the organization’s performance.

Actual performance must be compared with the previously set goals. If there

are any significant deviations, it’s management’s job to get the organization back

on track. This monitoring, comparing, and potential correcting is what is meant

by the controlling function.

So, using the functional approach, the answer to the question, What do managers

do? is that they plan, organize, lead, and control.

Management Roles

In the late 160s, a graduate student at MIT, Henry Mintzberg, undertook a careful

study of five executives to determine what these managers did on their jobs. On

the basis of his observations of these managers, Mintzberg concluded that managers

perform 10 different, highly interrelated roles, or sets of behaviors attributable to

their jobs.8 As shown in Exhibit 1-1, these 10 roles can be grouped as being primarily

concerned with interpersonal relationships, the transfer of information, and

decision making.

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