Thursday, December 6, 2012

urban myth

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on urban myth. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality urban myth paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in urban myth, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your urban myth paper at affordable prices with !



Our story begins with a tall and very shapely woman if you get my drift. Anyway this tall shapely woman was trying her best to book a business meeting. She was sitting there watching the flickering of the computer screen while she haggard over the phone. She groaned as she saw the screen flicker and die the same happened with the lights and the remote cottage was plunged into darkness.


“What a time for a power cut” she muttered


“Now I will have to drive to London suppose you don’t appreciate something until you have lost it” she added after some thought


She took some time to gather up her equipment and briefcase.


live paper help



Due to the fact that she was in a very remote area she had to drive through several deserted roads but tonight the moon was out and the roads were clear.


Her business meeting was uneventful, however the trip home would not be.


After the meeting she started off home in her new car. For some unknown reason she had problems getting home, she just could not find any roads she knew and the moon which she could have sworn was full when she set out was now know where to be seen.


No matter how hard she tried she could not find any roads she knew. She usually took low keyed roads unlike the bumpy and poorly maintained roads like these. The hedges at the sides had the same gnarled dead tree that looked like a dead withering old man every 10 metres.


As she went over a deep pot hole her knee hit the radio and turned it on.


A serious voice floated around the car it said


“a maniac is on the lose and is armed with two small sharp axes, he is tall and dark with a beard he is wearing black trousers and a black jumper”


she jabbed at the radio in her egerness to turn it off, this really disturbed her.


So she decided to take a rest in a approaching garage.


As soon as she got there a strange deformed park attendant lumbered towards her car.


As she go out the attendant muttered that he would refuel the car while she had a bite to eat.


The words were a suggestion but she felt she could not disobey them.


While in the caf� she could not take her eyes off the attendant, in half an hour he came back in and said that all was ready


Just as she was walking towards her car she heard the deformed man shout at her, then he was running after her at that point she ran to the car paused to unlock it but found it strangely unlocked


Without thinking she dived in and reved up the engine .


Just as she got out of the garage forecourt she heard him shout “there’s someone in your car”


She looked in the rear view mirror and saw two gleaming eyes, the last thing she saw was two gleaming axes closing in on their target





Please note that this sample paper on urban myth is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on urban myth, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on urban myth will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Monday, October 22, 2012

Emerson's Influence on Other Writers

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Emerson's Influence on Other Writers. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Emerson's Influence on Other Writers paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Emerson's Influence on Other Writers, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Emerson's Influence on Other Writers paper at affordable prices with !



Emerson, considered the father of the American Literary Renaissance, wrote many essays to ultimately change the societal values surrounding him. In “Self Reliance,” Emerson conveys his philosophical idea that every individual has their own individual genius speaking universal truths. However this tends to be a hard to achieve with society imposing conformity, traditions, and institutions on society. “To believe your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men, -that is genius”(1). Emerson values individuality and believed that thinking for one’s self and trusting original ideas, help reach a universal truth that will ultimately benefit society as a whole. Thoreau, Whitman, Dickson, and Frederick Douglass, and Hawthorne’s writings all have an “Emersonian” essence of self-reliance and individual genius by conveying themes of individuality and non-conformity.


Similar to Emerson, Thoreau dislikes institutions and promotes non-conformity. He believes the government stands in the way of individuality because the majority, instead of the individual thinker, makes decisions. Thoreau takes Emerson’s “Self Reliance” philosophy further by becoming an activist while following his conscious or individual thoughts. An example is Thoreau protesting slavery using Civil Disobedience, “If one HONEST man, in this State of Massachusetts, ceasing to hold slaves, were actually to withdraw from this co partnership, and be locked up in the county jail therefore, it would be the abolition of slavery in America”(). Thoreau encourages disobeying unjust laws in order to change them. Eventually, he stops paying his poll tax for six years and is imprisoned. Acting as an individual by disobeying unjust laws is what will change the laws. When the individual follows its conscious, or what Emerson would call “individual genius,” the universal truth would be apparent that unjust laws should not be followed. Thoreau refuses to let the system of government define the individual and supports individual genius through individual action and protest against unjust laws.


Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman’s poetry contains the same themes of Emerson but writes in a more concrete way opposed to abstract theories. Dickinson writes mainly of the self-reliant, private individual. Many of Dickinson’s poems such as, “I Died for Beauty” and “Because I Could Not Stop for Death,” deal with immortality. She views death as private thing that everyone goes through alone, isolating everyone. In contrast, Whitman portrays a more democratic side of the universal self. He differs from Emerson believing that society is inspirational to the individual opposed to drowning out the individual thought. The Poem, “Song of Myself” says everyone is an individual but differences should not separate everyone. “My tongue, every atom of my blood, form’d from this soil, this air, Born here of parents born here from parents the same and their parents the same.” Whitman believes the differences between each individual are not important because the same universe created everyone. However he does realize the importance of not conforming to everyone when saying, “I harbor for good or bad, I permit to speak at every hazard”(6). Whitman speaks through is individual genius even if what he says is not agreed upon. Emerson’s Self Reliance influenced both poets to speak their universal truths through their poetry.


Frederick Douglass’ autobiography was not knowingly written with the influence of Emerson but is living proof of the philosophy of self-reliance. Douglass lived a much different life from Emerson, being born into slavery and witnessing humanity being stripped away from fellow slaves. Slaves would be whipped, beaten, and sometimes even shot. After witnessing his own aunt beaten as a young boy, Douglass comes to the realization, more similar Whitman, that everyone shares a universal human nature. This is more democratic compared to Emerson’s more individualistic idea, believing all men are equal. Douglass determined to dedicate his life to the emancipation of all slaves does also compare with Emerson later on in his life. By befriending other boys in his neighborhood, Douglass learns to read and write. He finds this as a necessity to speak universal truths and express his own genius and be credible to others. Douglass compares with Emerson through his actions but differs in the life that he lived.


live paper help



“Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles”(). These last two lines from “Self Reliance” essay represent Emerson’s individualistic concepts. Emerson values the equal individual that is in touch with their universal genius. Thoreau promotes this individuality and non-conformity through civil disobedience. Through poetry, Dickinson and Whitman speak their own genius. Whitman thinks more democratically while Dickinson values the private individual. Fredrick Douglass is proof of finding his own genius and universal truths and uses these concepts to help free himself and fellow slaves of the deprivation of universal humanity that all men deserve. Though these writers may ultimately be trying to convey different messages, all contain the theme of self-reliance and influence of Emerson.





Please note that this sample paper on Emerson's Influence on Other Writers is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Emerson's Influence on Other Writers, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Emerson's Influence on Other Writers will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Discuss the ways in which gender studies and gay and queer studies have enabled critics to see texts afresh.

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Discuss the ways in which gender studies and gay and queer studies have enabled critics to see texts afresh.. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Discuss the ways in which gender studies and gay and queer studies have enabled critics to see texts afresh. paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Discuss the ways in which gender studies and gay and queer studies have enabled critics to see texts afresh., therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Discuss the ways in which gender studies and gay and queer studies have enabled critics to see texts afresh. paper at affordable prices with !






For the purpose of my essay I will focus on the topics Gender studies and Gay and Queer Studies as forms of critical interpretation.


The idea of Gender Studies and Gay and Queer Studies allows critics to see texts afresh as they are relatively new concepts. Up until the late 160’s heterosexual culture was intolerant of gay culture in literature, it was seen as perverse. But then gay and lesbien scholars who had up till then remained silent regarding their sexuality or the presence of homosexuality themes in literature began to speak. Their work along with feminism helped bring into being a new school of gender theory in the 180’s. Gender critics began to study gender and sexuality as discursive and historical institutions.


While Gender Studies and Gay and Lesbien studies is a fresh and exciting new perspective it is not an easy one to work with. Gender and gay and lesbien theorists are concerned with unearthing a hidden tradition of homosexual culture in literature and it is not always easy to recover. Homosexual writers including Tennesse Williams and Henry James didn’t write openly about their life’s experiences as they feared imprisonment.


live paper help



The notion of sexual identity and the logic behind gender categorisation are other concepts with which critics can use to enable them to see texts afresh. They question the relation of gender categories to sexuality and physiology they can use the ideas that what is culturally accepted as masculine or feminine may not line up with certain sexual behaviours, psychological ideas or sexual practices, that the idea of male or female is merely political and not biological.


When analyzing a text, theorists can question the opposition between homosexuality and heterosexuality, interrogating the identity of each and the relations apparent between the two. “ Heterosexuality contains a moment of homosexuality when the child identifies with a parent of the same sex or when heterosexuality men relate to each other while competing over women, and homosexuality comprises both masculinity and femininity supposedly heterosexual qualities, in highly mixed and variable amounts”(Michael Ryan, Literary Theory A Practical Introduction)


Critics can also examine the texts with the ideas of what different societies portray as “the norm”. Normatively heterosexual males are masculine and heterosexual females are feminine because “politics” and “culture” instruct them in behaviour appropriate to the dominant gender representations. Alternative sexual practices to “normal” heterosexual practices in some cultures and places is strictly banned. From this it is apparent that, the supposed identities of male and female and the norms of reproductive sexuality are thus effects of enforcement procedures that operate through cultural and legal discussion, priviledging certain sexual choices while denigrating others.


“ Such gender identities as “women” are not pre-discursive foundations but rather normalizing injunctions produced by discursive performances” ( Michael Ryan, Literary Theory A Practical Introduction)


Gender critics can also examine text using the idea male heterosexuality oppression has contributed to the marginalization of homosexuality. It is noted that heterosexual masculinity is at a its most fierce in a moment of sexual panic. The violence and abuse exercised against homosexuals originates in part from the instability of heterosexual identity. “ Gender studies has thus given rise to analyses of the repressed “ homosocial” strains that motivate the heterosexual tradition’s construction of compulsory heterosexuality and normative sexuality and normative masculinity” ( Michael Ryan Literary Theory A Practical Introduction)


One of the most interesting theorys a critic can use in their interpretations of a text is that homosexuality is not an identity apart from another identity called heterosexuality. Rather, everyone is potentially gay and it is only society imprinting heterosexual norms that cuts away those potentials and makes heterosexuality as the dominant social format.


When exploring the idea of gender, critics could also use the concept of feminism to help look at texts in a fresh way. “ Feminism asks why women have played subordinate role to men in human societies. It is concerned with how women’s lives have changed throughout history, and it asks what about women’s experience is different from men’s either as a result of an essential biological or psychological difference or as a result of historical imprinting and social construction” (Michael Ryan, Literary Theory A Practical Introduction)


According to feminist theory, women are seen as an object of value exchanged between families. Men hold almost all positions of political and economic power in our world. It is accepted in most cultures and societies that the place of the woman in the family is in charge of the domestic chores and childbearing. According to some feminist theorists, continued male domination is the consequence of male violence against women. Men take advantage of the physical strength to place themselves in positions of social, economic and political power.


When critics want to use feminism to help analyze a text, they should take note of how society has portrayed women, so that full understanding of females writers can be established. Luce Irigaray, a French feminist stated “ Women represents all that exists outside that subject and its truth. She is material, improper, indeterminate, incapable of conscious mastery without self-identity, in-different, formless and multiple, as matter, she is the mirror, the specular scene upon which reason operates, providing reason with material for its concepts while yet remaining outside rational ideality. Male reason is therefore necessarily predicted in the subordination of the feminine, understood as the principle of connection in and to matter, which is associated with the mother’s reproductive body. Men have always appropriated women’s reproductive powers to their own self-idealizing ends. Women’s powers of reproduction have been exchanged between men to assume male alliances. There is a strong link, therefore, between the philosophical elevation of the male mind over the female body, and the social institution of patriarchy, which traditionally abstracts from women’s bodies in order to equate them as exchangeable commodities in the status and marriage markets.”


From the evidence presented here it is apparent that both Gender Studies and Gay and Queer Studies offer critics many ways in which to look at texts in a new, exciting and fresh way. Using these theories in critical interpretations of texts will allow the reader or critic to experience a different “ feel” for the text in question thus enhancing enjoyment.








Please note that this sample paper on Discuss the ways in which gender studies and gay and queer studies have enabled critics to see texts afresh. is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Discuss the ways in which gender studies and gay and queer studies have enabled critics to see texts afresh., we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Discuss the ways in which gender studies and gay and queer studies have enabled critics to see texts afresh. will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Compulsory Work Experience for Students

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Compulsory Work Experience for Students. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Compulsory Work Experience for Students paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Compulsory Work Experience for Students, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Compulsory Work Experience for Students paper at affordable prices with !



In the past, I have being doing work experience for a couple of time while I’m studding at school. My first impression of the program was “Negligible”, not only I but also other students think that who would want to employ a student who under age with no experience. Time past by and I was already in year 11 doing a “VET-Business Administration” this is where I have to go out into the real world. It was intimidating but I have developed many skills, quality, understand what the work force it like and also help me building up my degree as while as my knowledge.


For beginner, they might felt “disappointed” because they did not what they job that they wanted. For others is another way to gain academic credit, but it is all a matter of committing yourself to something that will provide you a lot of positive feedback. During your time working at a practice firm you can pick up ideas that will be useful to you in the future. Now a day many practice firm/company would want to recruit people who are flexible with things, learn quickly and cope with changes, this all can be put in one word “Experience”.


Second, the program is not only can you learn how to scrutiny a problem but what’s the most important is you can learn how to solve the problem on your own and you will feel more comfortable when meeting this problem in the real life. Some people are always be surrounded by friends and family, and this program teach you to be in depended and teach you how to deal with problem that you have never come across. Once you are capable handing the job it, you will feel better and confidence in yourself.





livepaperhelp.com



The third reason why I think that Work Experience should be compulsory for students because the program undertake as part of a course which combine in skills and knowledge you need for your qualification. Doing work experience actually can help you build up your degree so you will have many opportunities like; it helps you to network connection and build up contacts, it can give you a head start with employers


Work Experience is very important for young teenager, especially students. There are many positive reasons for students to do the program, which I have already mentioned above. Sometime it can be disappointing, but having experience can be in handy later in your life and also it will be able to add to your resume and application for employment. This is one of the best ways to choose a career is to see what it is like. The main purpose of this program is allowing you to spend time sampling a career while making useful professional contacts.





Please note that this sample paper on Compulsory Work Experience for Students is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Compulsory Work Experience for Students, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Compulsory Work Experience for Students will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Communication in Carver's "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love"

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Communication in Carver's "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love". What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Communication in Carver's "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love" paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Communication in Carver's "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love", therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Communication in Carver's "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love" paper at affordable prices with !



In Carver’s short story, the characters discuss the ups and downs of love. Although Mel seems to dominate the conversation, the four characters, Mel, Terri, Nick, and Laura can all relate to their past failed relationships. The couples discuss many reasons as to why love can fail mistaking violence for love, creating barriers or safety nets, and carrying the baggage of past relationships into current ones. Terry talks about her previous relationship with a man named Ed. She was a target for his abuse, both verbal and physical. As though she was blind to the mistreatment she was receiving, Terri was convinced of his love for her. The others are in agreement that it was not a healthy relationship.


Mel spoke extensively about wanting to come back in a previous life as a knight, wearing armor. Mel states, You were pretty safe wearing all that armor and “But what I liked about knights, besides their ladies, was that they had that suit of armor, you know, and they couldn’t get hurt very easy.” This image of armor is a barrier that Mel wants, as protect against the emotional draining that comes with love. Nick tries to offer Mel a difference of opinion when he says, “But sometimes they suffocated in all that armor, Mel. Theyd even have heart attacks if it got too hot and they were too tired and worn out.” Mel also seems to also use alcohol as a barrier. Terri says, “Mel, why dont you take a pill?” Mel shook his head as replies, “Ive taken everything there is.”


The characters in Carver’s story recall their previous relationships. Each of them can relate to divorce, heartache and what they think of the love that had existed at one time. They try to define what love is. However, I do not feel as if they even know the meaning themselves. Each of the characters has their own ideas, however none of them are superior.





livepaperhelp.com



Please note that this sample paper on Communication in Carver's "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love" is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Communication in Carver's "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love", we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Communication in Carver's "What We Talk About When We Talk About Love" will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Blah Blah Blah

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Blah Blah Blah. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Blah Blah Blah paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Blah Blah Blah, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Blah Blah Blah paper at affordable prices with !



This is the essay on nothing. I chose to write about nothing. In other words, Blah, Blah, Blah. These words might seem nonsesical to you but to me they are the essence of my being.


Where would I be if I could not say,Blah, Blah, Blah Then i decided to fly a kite. Boy was that swell. it was the greatest time I EVER HAD. I am trying to write a paper now but i am having dome trouble because i dont know what i am talking about. It is fun to just ramble on about nothing. i bet i know what youre saying to yourself, blah blah blah. you see i told you. Its like the universal language for shut up your boring. Oh boy I think i still have a few more words to go before I can register. i think this whole thing is silly. I just wanna read the papers for opinions. I would never actually hand one in as my own. that would be terribly wrong. If any of you are planning on doing that you definetly shouldnt. I mean thats plagiarism. you could go to jail for that. People beat you in jail and do lots of other horrible horrible things to you. I am not from earth, i am from a land far far away. we have purple trees and orange cows. you know what i think this is actually a good writing excercise. im just writing completely non sensically based upon what pops into my head. i wonder if i could find a pattern in my toughts.


Please note that this sample paper on Blah Blah Blah is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Blah Blah Blah, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Blah Blah Blah will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Beginning Photoshop tricks

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Beginning Photoshop tricks. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Beginning Photoshop tricks paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Beginning Photoshop tricks, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Beginning Photoshop tricks paper at affordable prices with !



Beginning Photoshop tricks


Zoom in/Zoom out fast


Zoom in


· On a Mac, press Command-+.


livepaperhelp.com



· On a PC, press Control-+.


Zoom out


· On a Mac, press Command-ÿ (minus symbol).


· On a PC, press Control-ÿ (minus).


Layer opacity shortcut


To change the opacity of your active layer, switch to the Move tool (by pressing the letter v) then simply type in the desired amount of opacity (i.e., 8 percent, 65 percent, 5 percent). If you want a round number (like 0 percent, 0 percent, 40 percent) just input the first number (i.e., for 0 percent, for 0 percent, and so on).


Repeating filters


Once youve run one of Photoshops filters, Photoshop assumes you might want to run that same filter again, so it conveniently puts that filter at the top of your filters menu (to keep you from digging through the submenus just to run the same filter).


Even better yet, it creates a keyboard shortcut. To reapply the last filter you used, using the exact same settings, on a Mac press Command-F and on a PC press Control-F.


Resetting your default colors


To quickly reset Photoshops foreground and background colors to their default settings (black foreground, white background) just press the letter d.


Handy views


To view your Photoshop document at its full 100 percent size, double-click on the Magnifying Glass tool in the toolbar.


To have your Photoshop document Fit in Window (displaying the entire document as large as possible in your monitor window) double-click on the Grabber Hand tool in the toolbar.


Scott Kelby is editor of Photshop User magazine.


Intermediate Photoshop Tips


Changing your unit of measurement on the fly


In Photoshop 6.0, you can quickly change your unit of measurement (inches, pixels, and so on).


1. Make your rulers visible by pressing Command-R (Mac) or Control-R (PC).


. Mac


o Hold down the Control key.


o Click anywhere within your ruler.


o A pop-up menu will appear where you can choose your measurement unit.


. PC


o Right-click on the ruler to bring up this pop-up menu.


In Photoshop 5.0/5.5, users can change units of measure by double-clicking on the ruler, and it will bring up the Units and Measurement dialog box, where you can change the desired unit from the pop-up menu.


Change values even faster


In Photoshops Options Bar, you dont have to click and drag to highlight the options fields when changing values; just click directly on the fields name. It will highlight the field for you -- then just type in your new values. This works in Photoshop 6.0.


Visually choosing fonts


Dont know which font you want? Try this


1. Once youve entered some time, highlight it.


. Click once in the Font field in the Options Bar.


. Use the up/down arrow keys on your keyboard to scroll through your different typefaces.


4. Youll see them change live on screen, making it easy to choose the right face.


Moving the background layer in Photoshop 6.0


The background layer is locked by default and cannot be moved. Not only that, you cant unlock it (the lock icon at the top of the Layers palette is grayed out). Youre not out of luck.


To move the background layer, go to in the layers palette, and double-click on the Background layer and the New Layer dialog box will appear. It will rename your background layer as Layer 0 and now it will be unlocked and movable.


Tight cropping Web graphics


Want to crop your Web graphics as tightly as possible? Photoshop 6.0 can do it for you automatically. Just choose Trim from the Image menu, and it will crop your Web graphic as tightly as possible for the smallest possible file size.


Advanced Photoshop Tips


Web color trick


If you ever wanted to know the HTML Web color of a color within a Photoshop image, follow these steps.


1. Hold the Control key.


. Click the Eyedropper tool on any color in the image.


. A pop-up menu will appear where you can choose Copy color as HTML.


4. Then you can insert that color as HTML text in your Web apps HTML editor.


5. It will appear like this COLOR=#FBDDA1.


Get better color info


If youre correcting images in Photoshop, chances are youre using the Eyedropper tool to get readings from within your image. You can get better results when using the Eyedropper tool by switching how it samples info.


1. Click on the Eyedropper tool.


. In the Options Bar change the Sample Size from Point Sample (the default) to x average.


o 5.0/5.5 users double-click on the Eyedropper tool to bring up its Options palette.


By making this change, the Eyedropper tool will give you a more accurate reading because youre getting an average of the area where youre clicking, rather than reading just one individual pixel (Point Sample), which may give you a misleading reading.


Seeing your type change colors


In Photoshop 6, if you highlight some type so you can change its color, the highlight color covers the color change, and you cant see what your type looks like until you remove the highlight.


Heres the tip after you highlight the type, press Command-H to temporarily hide the Highlighting, so you can see the type color as you change colors.


Creating temporary brushes


Need a bigger brush? Make a temporary one in seconds in Photoshop 6. Heres how.


1. If youre working with a brush just click on the brush thumbnail icon in the Options Bar and a new brush dialog will appear.


. Move the slider to the size you want and start painting.


When you switch brushes later, the temporary brush you created is gone, and best of all, you didnt affect the original brush, its still intact.


Tips From the Show


Here are the tips we demonstrated on the show. If you want an in-depth tutorial, watch the video.


Fix overexposed image


If you have an image thats way too light, then try this trick


1. In the Layers palette, make a copy of the Background layer by dragging it to the New Layer icon at the bottom of the palette.


. At the top of the palette, change the layers blend mode to Multiply.


. Continue making copies of this multiply layer.


4. Each copy gets progressively darker and darker until the image looks just right.


Fix underexposed image


If your image is too dark try this


· Make a copy of your background layer (see above), but this time change the blend mode to Screen.


This will lighten the overall image, and again you can keep making copies of this screened layer to lighten the image to taste.


Fix red eye


If you have a digital camera, then youre probably pretty familiar with the red eye effect. Heres a quick way to get rid of red eye


1. Choose the Paintbrush tool.


. Choose a soft-edged brush that is about the same size as the eye you want to fix.


. In Photoshops Options bar, change the blend mode to Color.


4. Paint a few strokes over the eye.


5. The red eye disappears as you paint.


Add reflective glints


This is a quick technique for adding little reflective glints to your image


1. Choose the Airbrush tool.


. Make white your foreground color. (Press the letter d and then the letter x.)


. In the brushes menus drop-down palette, choose Assorted Brushes to load an additional set of special-effect brushes.


4. Choose the 48-pixel brush that looks like an X.


5. Paint a few glints on your image.


6. After youve added a few glints, go back and choose a standard round soft-edged brush.


7. Click and hold for a moment in the center of each glint to add a nice little glow to complete the effect.


Digital plastic surgery


Its easy to perform a facial retouch to reduce the size of a subjects nose


1. Use the Lasso tool to draw a very loose selection around the persons nose.


. Go under the Select menu and choose Feather. (By adding a feather, well be able to soften the edges of our selection and make the retouch more believable.)


. When the Feather dialog box appears, enter 10 pixels and click OK.


4. Press Control-J (or on Mac press Command-J) to put the selected nose area on its own layer.


5. Press Control-T (Command-T on a Mac) to enter Photoshops Free Transform function.


6. Hold Shift-Alt-Control (on Mac press Shift-Option-Command) and drag the top left handle inward to add a perspective effect and shrink the nose.


7. Release those keys.


8. Grab the top center handle and drag downward so the nose doesnt look distorted.


See a before and after by hiding the nose layer from view -- just click on the Eyeball icon in the first column to the left of the Background layer.





Please note that this sample paper on Beginning Photoshop tricks is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Beginning Photoshop tricks, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Beginning Photoshop tricks will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



art

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on art. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality art paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in art, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your art paper at affordable prices with !



The main setting of A Midsummer Nights Dream is in Athens under the rule of Theses and Hippolyta, which are both real characters from Greek Mythology. Yet it must be noted that the Athensof this play is not of ancient Greece or of its Rennaissance Counterpart, but it is a mixture of them with the folk culture of Elizabethan England. Following Act I, the play shifts to the Fairyland woods and stays there throughout Acts II, III, and IV, then returning to Athens in Act V for the matrimonies and the performance of Pyramus and Thisbe by Bottom and his fellow friends.


The play opens in the Athenian court of Theseus as he looks forward to wedding his bride, the former Queen of the Amazons, Hippolyta, some four days hence at the summer Solstice. The blocking character of the play arrives in the form of the aged Egeus, the father of Hermia. He wants his daughter Hermia to count. Little Billy Michaels loved to dress up like his heroes, the cowboys on TV. The seven year-old never listened to his mother, and his father dubbed him Billy the Brat. But his parents never disciplined him, and little Billy always just did what he wanted. And now Billys sorry that he never listened to his mom, who suggested that he not play Cowboys and Indians with a real bow and arrow - and that he not shoot the arrow straight up into the air the way that his buddy Danny did.


Please note that this sample paper on art is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on art, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on art will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



US trade barriers against China

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on US trade barriers against China. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality US trade barriers against China paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in US trade barriers against China, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your US trade barriers against China paper at affordable prices with !






Cause of the disputes


The Bush administration accused China of a host of trade violations, including intellectual property theft and trade barriers.


Manufacturers complained about rampant piracy of intellectual property, forced transfer of technology from firms launching joint ventures in China, trade barriers and capital markets that are largely insulated from free-market pressures, Evans said.


livepaperhelp.com



Evans also announced the creation of a new Unfair Trade Practices Team inside the Commerce Department to address trade barriers that are costing American jobs, as well as two new posts - an assistant secretary for trade promotion and an assistant secretary for manufacturing.


The announcements made in September, 15th in Detroit followed a series of 0 round-table discussions his agency has held around the country examining problems in manufacturing, Since July 000, manufacturing companies have lost .7 million jobs.


During those meetings, no country raised more attention as a source of concern than China, Evans said.


He gave as one example the experience of the manufacturer of Wrigley chewing gum, which has a 70 percent share of the Chinese market. Evans said that a Wrigley official told him that the Chinese were violating the companys copyrights by selling pirated gum in the city of Guangzhou and had even gone so far as to copy the designs of the Wrigley distribution trucks and were now driving the same routes.


Thats not a pretty picture, said Evans, who accused the Chinese of failing to live up to commitments it made in December 001 when it joined the World Trade Organization. China said at the time that it would open up its distribution systems to foreign suppliers and allow foreign non-bank companies to offer auto loans to consumers in China.


Evans pledged that the Bush administration would aggressively target unfair trade practices wherever they occur. American manufacturers can compete against any countrys white collars and blue collars but we will not submit to competing against another countrys choke collars.


American manufacturers have complained that China is artificially keeping the Chinese currency undervalued by as much as 40 percent to make American products more expensive in China and other markets where U.S. goods compete against Chinese products.


Evans said the new Unfair Trade Practices Team would work within the departments International Trade Administration while a new assistant secretary for trade promotion would also serve as the director general of the agencys Foreign Commercial Service, which supplies U.S. embassies with Commerce officials whose job is to help American companies operate in various foreign countries.


Senator Joe Lieberman, a Democrat representing Connecticut, said the Bush administration was late in addressing the issue.?The Bush administrations attention to Chinas trade abuses is .5 million jobs late. Weve been hemorrhaging manufacturing jobs for the last 1/ years, he said.


Senator Charles Schumer, a Democrat representing New York, said the Bush administration should be supporting his legislation to impose across-the-board tariffs of 7.5 percent on Chinese imports to penalize the country for undervaluing its currency to gain competitive advantage against U.S. exports.


China has been a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) for almost two years, but is still dragging its heels on fulfilling its WTO commitments. If it were a smaller economy, some of Chinas transgressions could be tolerated, but when the worlds fourth largest trading nation ignores its obligations, Chinas trading partners ought to act.


Till now, one thing is clear Bush administrations action is based on the belief that China will not change its behavior unless it faces credible prospects of retaliation. Therefore, persuading China to comply with its WTO obligations will take a combination of economic leverage and diplomatic pressure.


US Trade Barriers against China Textile Export


Therefore, the Bush administration is promising to further the cause of free trade by putting up barriers to trade. The U.S. Department of Commerce announced on November 18th that, at the request of American textile manufacturers, it will limit imports of Chinese-made brassieres, sleepwear and knit fabrics. (Based on the Section 01-- the 174 Trade Act)


Trade advocates immediately decried the decision, but the administration argues that the quotas will only restrict the growth of imports. And Republicans from textile states have said that they would not support future trade agreements unless the administration agreed to protect the industry.


When the time comes to vote on trade measures, though, its hardly clear that lawmakers from textile states will be forthcoming with their support. And if the president gets in the habit of protecting the nations least competitive industries, his credibility in trade talks will suffer.


Thats a major problem at a time when the United States is negotiating with other Western Hemisphere nations over the terms of a proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas. Pushing other nations to knock down barriers while putting new ones up in the United States amounts to telling the world, Do as I say, not as I do.


But even if President Bushs newest anti-trade measure doesnt provoke a trade war with China, its still a discouraging step.


Trade barriers are bad news for New Orleans and other port cities, which benefit from a free flow of goods around the world. Imported steel is one of the most important products that move through the Port of New Orleans, and the effect of tariffs has been dreadful. Steel, which normally represents about 40 percent of the cargo passing through the port, now accounts for only 5 percent.


Because no Chinese textiles pass through the Port of New Orleans, the quotas wont be nearly as damaging to the metro area as the steel tariffs have been.


Even so -- and even if textile quotas do temporarily improve the health of the domestic industry -- the consequences outweigh any benefits. One researcher calculates that government restrictions on the textile trade cost the average family of three, $400 to $500 a year. Those higher prices explain why retailers are up in arms about the new textile quotas.


Textile quotas may play well in textile states like North Carolina, just as the steel tariffs have shored up support for the president in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Kentucky. But these trade restrictions hurt the cause of free trade and the nation as a whole.


China’s Reponses


China has strongly protested plans by the United States to slap quotas on Chinese textile imports of dressing gowns and bras, accusing Washington of violating WTO principles of free trade.


The Chinese government expresses deep regret over this decision, the Ministry of Commerce said in a statement.


The American government ignored the strong opposition from the Chinese side, made such a recommendation, violating the World Trade Organizations principles of free trade, transparency and non-discrimination.


China threatened to take the issue to the rules-based global trade body.


The Chinese side retains the right to appeal to relevant agencies of WTO to protect the rights and interests of Chinese industries, the ministry said.


A ministry spokesman told AFP Chinese officials had cancelled a trip scheduled Wednesday to the US to meet soybean sellers.


The spat adds to a rising number of disputes between the two trading giants, as the US seeks to balance a 10 billion dollar trade deficit with China blamed on Beijing boosting its competitiveness by deliberately undervaluing its currency.


The new row erupted Tuesday as Washington announced quotas on Chinese textiles after finding a flood of subsidized imports has hurt US textile makers.


A US trade panel examining a complaint from the US textile industry called for safeguard relief against Chinese-made knit fabrics, dressing gowns and bras, the US Commerce Department said.


The move, which could limit the growth of Chinese imports to 7.5 percent annually, came under the provisions of Chinas accession agreement to the WTO.


But the ministry said the US measures did not fit the provision that allows the United States and other WTO members to impose temporary quotas in the event those imports are found to cause market disruption.


China did not explicitly threaten retaliatory measures, but said overall trade relations could be damaged.


China hopes the US will realize the negative impact the decision is bound to have on bilateral trade relations, the ministry said.


A group representing Chinese textiles manufacturers lambasted the US decision as completely wrong and arbitrary.


The China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Textiles said the US textile sector had only itself to blame for slumping production.


It insisted Chinese manufacturers had nothing to do with the sharp increase in exports, saying the growth only underscored the changing nature of the industry.


The accusations of US domestic producers to Chinese textile exporters are fabricated, there is no factual foundation, it said.


One US industry group estimated that since 001 exports of dressing gowns from China have increased by 05 percent, bras by 8 percent and knit fabrics by 8,000 percent.


But the chamber argued China has become one of the USs bright spots in its textile exportation market and benefits much more from maintaining the fast growth of the market.


It further reminded Washington that Chinas textile imports from the US have grown sharply, surging 148 percent to 787 million in the first nine months of this year compared with the same period last year.


Given that the restrictions would be calculated in dollar values rather than volume, they would affect a fraction of the total textile trade between the two countries, which suggested the move was politically motivated.


The products affected have an annual export value of less than one billion dollars, so its unlikely there will be any substantial impact on Chinese textile exporters, said Li Zhixian, a textile analyst at Guotai Junan Securities.


The US government seems to be doing this more for political reasons than economic reasons.


In response, the dollar sunk to record lows against the euro in Tokyo, with the euro hitting 1.178 dollars.


Analysts attributed the slide to worries that the US move could open the door to other protectionist barriers.


So far, China has not threatened to retaliate. And while the Chinese government said it would reserve the right to seek relief from the World Trade Organization, the statement came from a Commerce Ministry spokesman rather than a policymaker. Beijing-watchers take this as a sign that, for now, Chinas leaders dont see the issue as a major one.


That reaction is far more muted than the outcry in Europe over the steel tariffs that President Bush imposed last year. After the WTO ruled last week -- as expected -- that the tariffs violate international trade rules, the European Union prepared $. billion worth of retaliatory tariffs on American products.


Conclusion


The trade barrier battle between China and US is hard to predict and if it can not be calmed down, it is not a good thing to both sides.


First of all, China has to admit that it gives the protection to certain departments and products violate the WTO accession agreement.


Secondly, the too aggressive action taken by US against China is not appropriate.


China’s trade surpluses with American and European countries first reflect China’s police of welcome to the foreign direct investment. It shows that China is not pushing trade protectionism. In addition, China’s opening degree is also manifested in its relatively low import tariff after joining WTO. Admittedly, it still can not qualify the standards of a WTO membership.


At last, I do agree that China need to cope with the fair trade competition. And speed up its reform of every social and economy aspect. A more open and free trade market between China and US is not only good for the American economy but also good for China. So, I believe the American’s push to China to speed up its opening process is necessary but it is also not wise to push too much and hurry. I think China and USA need more talk and cooperation at this point and achieve a win-win solution based on their common goal-boosting their own economies, is not impossible.


US Trade Barriers against China’s Export


Prepared by Jing Wang


Appendix


SUMMARY OF U.S.-CHINA BILATERAL WTO AGREEMENT


AGRICULTURE


The Agreement would eliminate barriers and increase access for U.S. exports across a broad range of commodities. Commitments include


?Significant cuts in tariffs that will be completed by January 004. Overall average for agricultural products will be 17.5 percent and for U.S. priority products 14 percent (down from 1 percent).


?Establishment of a tariff-rate quota system for imports of bulk commodities, e.g., wheat, corn, cotton, barley, and rice, that provides a share of the TRQ for private traders. Specific rules on how the TRQ will operate and increased transparency in the process will help ensure that imports occur. Significant and growing quota quantities subject to tariffs that average between 1- percent.


?Immediate elimination of the tariff-rate quota system for barley, peanut oil, sunflower-seed oil, cottonseed oil, and a phase-out for soybean oil.


?The right to import and distribute products without going through a state-trading enterprise or middleman.


?Elimination of export subsidies on agricultural products.


China has also agreed to the elimination of SPS barriers that are not based on scientific evidence.


INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS


China would lower tariffs and eliminate broad systemic barriers to U.S. exports, such as limits on who can import goods and distribute them in China, as well as barriers such as quotas and licenses on U.S. products.


TARIFFS


?Tariffs cut from an average of 4.6 percent to an average of .4 percent overall and 7.1 percent on U.S. priority products.


?China will participate in the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) and eliminate all tariffs on products such as computers, telecommunications equipment, semiconductors, computer equipment, and other high-technology products.


?In the auto sector, China will cut tariffs from the current 80-100% level to 5% by mid-006, with the largest cuts in the first years after accession.


?Auto parts tariffs will be cut to an average of 10% by mid-006.


?In the wood and paper sectors, tariffs will drop from present levels of 1-18% on wood and 15-5% on paper down to levels generally between 5% and 7.5%.


?China will also be implementing the vast majority of the chemical harmonization initiative. Under that initiative, tariffs will be at 0, 5.5 and 6.5 percent for products in each category.


RIGHT TO IMPORT AND DISTRIBUTE


Trading rights and distribution are among the top concerns for U.S. manufacturers and agricultural exporters. At present, China severely restricts trading rights (the right to import and export) and the ability to own and operate distribution networks. Under the Agreement, trading rights and distribution services will be progressively phased in over three years. China will also open up sectors related to distribution services, such as repair and maintenance, warehousing, trucking and air courier services.


SERVICES


China has made commitments to phase out most restrictions in a broad range of services sectors, including distribution, banking, insurance, telecommunications, professional services such as accountancy and legal consulting, business and computer related services, motion pictures and video and sound recording services. China will also participate in the Basic Telecommunications and Financial Services Agreements.


ANTIDUMPING AND SUBSIDIES METHODOLOGY


The agreed protocol provisions ensure that American firms and workers will have strong protection against unfair trade practices including dumping and subsidies. The U.S. and China have agreed that we will be able to maintain our current antidumping methodology (treating China as a non-market economy) in future anti-dumping cases. This provision will remain in force for 15 years after Chinas accession to the WTO. Moreover, when we apply our countervailing duty law to China we will be able to take the special characteristics of Chinas economy into account when we identify and measure any subsidy benefit that may exist.


PRODUCT-SPECIFIC SAFEGUARD


The agreed provisions for the protocol package also ensure that American domestic firms and workers will have strong protection against rapid increases of imports.


?To do this, the Product-Specific Safeguard provision sets up a special mechanism to address increased imports that cause or threaten to cause market disruption to a U.S. industry. This mechanism, which is in addition to other WTO Safeguards provisions, differs from traditional safeguard measures. It permits United States to address imports solely from China, rather than from the whole world, that are a significant cause of material injury through measures such as import restrictions. Moreover, the United States will be able to apply restraints unilaterally based on legal standards that differ from those in the WTO Safeguards Agreement. This could permit action in more cases. The Product-Specific Safeguard will remain in force for 1 years after China accedes to the WTO.


TEXTILES


Chinas protocol package will include a provision drawn from our 17 bilateral textiles agreement, which permits U.S. companies and workers to respond to increased imports of textile and apparel products. This textile safeguard will remain in the effect until December 1, 008, which is four years after the WTO agreement on Textile and Clothing expires.





Please note that this sample paper on US trade barriers against China is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on US trade barriers against China, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on US trade barriers against China will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Total Quality Management AndBusiness Process Reengineering An Integrated Model

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Total Quality Management AndBusiness Process Reengineering An Integrated Model. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Total Quality Management AndBusiness Process Reengineering An Integrated Model paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Total Quality Management AndBusiness Process Reengineering An Integrated Model, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Total Quality Management AndBusiness Process Reengineering An Integrated Model paper at affordable prices with !



OUTLINE


Introduction


Statement of Objective


Literature Review


livepaperhelp.com



A. TQM


B. BPR


I. Common Grounds


A. Quality improvement and Process Focus


B. Top Management Support


C. Human Resource Empowerment, Teamwork, Training,…


D. Metrics and Measurement


II. Strategy Differences


A. Level of Change Radical vs. Incremental


B. Frequency of Change Innovation vs. Improvement


C. Risk and Pay Back Period


D. Focus Strategy and Customer


III. Strengths and Weaknesses


A. BPR advantages and disadvantages


B. TQM advantages and disadvantages


IV. Reconciliation and Integration A Model


A. Common Weaknesses


B. A Model for Performance Excellence


V. Conclusion


Introduction


The past two decades have witnessed the rise and fall of countless short-lived fads. Some have attracted a flurry of book, articles, and seminars; others have been completely discredited. Businesses have realized that there is a need to restructure their business practices and become more customer-focused. All recent business approaches and techniques have generally aimed at improving performance, increasing profits, gaining market share, and most importantly satisfying the customer who has become more educated and more demanding than ever. In the last two decades two organizational development models have dominated the business world for a considerable period of time namely Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Process Reengineering (BPR).


Statement of Objective


This paper aims to shed a novel light on the two most recent and prominent management approaches, namely TQM and BPR. In an attempt to examine the interaction between radical BPR and incremental TQM with respect to change management, I shall briefly discuss the two constructs and contemplate the roots and basic tenets that underlie each. BPR has been referred to in the literature as ‘the successor’ of TQM and has been treated as an equal. I shall treat the similarities and common grounds among the two, as well as the differences between them. Next, I shall touch upon the weaknesses and highlights that distinguish each, and then move on to construct an integrated model in an attempt to reconciliate the two ‘opposing camps.’ In this model, BPR cannot withstand, but be an integrated part of the more comprehensive TQM effort, which is the broader platform for organizational change. As such, BPR is rendered as a technique to be employed under the more exhaustive TQM approach. I shall support my presentation by recent books and articles that have dealt with the issue, in addition to examples and case studies from the literature that have implemented change programs based on TQM and BPR principals. This paper gains significance, as the debate is more heated than ever concerning the survival, decline, or assimilation of the two strategies.


Total Quality Management


Over the past 0 years, quality has been hailed as the key factor for success. However, the organizational world has been increasingly moving away from the traditional ‘quality’ concept, as a function of inspection, control, audit, and review, as these are all now seen as non-value adding. Some of TQM’s basic concepts came out of Bell Telephone’s labs in the early 10s. Refined and developed by Deming, Juran, Crosby, and then Ishikawa and Taguchi, and later on others -- TQM calls for continually improving quality by using statistical measures to track, both, problems and the results of efforts to fix these problems.


Edwards Deming, the guru of the quality approach, describes quality as having no meaning other than that defined by customer needs and desires. “A satisfied customer is not enough,” says Deming in one of his early lectures of the 150s in Japan. “Business is built on the loyal customer, one who comes back and brings a friend.” A more recent definition of TQM offered by Almaraz in 14 maintains that TQM refers to a management process directed at establishing organized continuous improvement activities, involving everyone in an organization in a totally integrated effort toward improving performance at every level.”


The TQM philosophy provides the overall concepts that foster continuous improvement in an organization. This philosophy stresses a systematic, integrated, consistent, organization-wide perspective involving everyone and everything. It focuses primarily on the total satisfaction for both, internal and external customer, within a management environment that seeks continuous improvement of all systems and processes. The TQM philosophy emphasizes the use of al people, usually in multifunctional teams, to bring about improvement from within the organization. It stresses optimal life cycle cost and uses measurement within a disciplined methodology to target improvements. The prevention of defects and emphasis on quality in design are key elements of the philosophy. The elimination of losses and reduction of variability are important aims. Further, it advocates the development of relationships between all parties � employee, supplier, and customer. TQM provides a flexible, responsive management approach able to act and react to all the forces of today’s and tomorrow’s economic world. It focuses the resources of an organization on identifying and acting on the internal and external forces that will influence an organizations operations. TQM gears an organization toward continually improving quality, increasing productivity, and reducing costs to ease economic pressures. It focuses on total customer satisfaction through highest product and service quality at lowest life cycle costs to compete in the global environment. TQM stresses constant training and education, downsizing, and service value.


A further understanding of Total Quality Management comes from the terms that make up the name. Total means total comprehensive participation, i.e., the involvement of everyone and everything in the organization in a continuous improvement effort. Quality is total customer satisfaction, whether internal or external customers. Management is the leadership of an organization that creates and maintains the TQM environment. The basis of quality in TQM is a process-based structure consistent with the Deming PDCA Cycle Plan, Do, Check, Act.


Although it has been recently suggested that TQM is ‘out’ or that it was essentially a 180s phenomenon, the interest in TQM has scarcely subsided . Today such diverse practices are being done under the name of TQM that it seems to have lost its boundaries. Some consider TQM as a management attempt at cultural transformation and treat it as synonymous with cultural change and excellence. (1) Others consider it a method of cutting losses and, among other things, reducing waste and scrape while boosting customer satisfaction. There is no one agreed upon definition for TQM. Total Quality Management is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that are the foundation of a continuously improving organization. The terminology differs from one organization to another; however, there are four essential elements of all definitions of TQM and these are continual improvement, people orientation, quantitative methods, and, last but not least, customer focus. TQM integrates fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under the disciplined approach focused on continuous improvement. TQM has been especially remarkable for its long tenure atop the heap and has been labeled ‘King of the Hill.’


Business Process Reengineering


Business reengineering is the concept of changing the fundamental way work is done in order to achieve radical performance improvement in speed, cost, and quality. The term BPR first appeared in the Information Technology (IT) field and was then used in the broader context of organizational change processes to refer to the use of modern information technology to radically redesign business processes. BPR will shatter assumptions and


simplify processes utilizing IT as an enabler. According to its originators, Hammer and Champy, reengineering refers to “the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.”


BPR can be better understood by analyzing the terms of its original definition. Fundamental rethinking is the reconsideration of the basic questions of “why do they [organizations] do what they do? And why do they do it the way they do?” Radical redesign means uprooting the old and creating new structures and processes. As such reengineering is about reinventing the business and not improving or modifying it. Dramatic refers to the achievement of quantum leaps rather than incremental improvements in BPR application, which demand “…blowing up of the old and replacing it with something new.” Hammer and Champy define the fourth term, business process, as a “collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value to the customer.”


BPR is, above all, an improvement philosophy. It aims to achieve step improvements in performance by redesigning the critical processes through which an organization operates, maximizing their value added content and minimizing everything else. This approach can be applied to an individual process or to the whole organization.(the essence of BPR0) Povey explains that the basic premise of BPR, the rapid redesign of critical core processes of an organization, generates breakthrough improvements in the performance and result in a competitive advantage in the global market place.


Reengineering challenges the very raison d’être of the process. Hammer and Champy speak of three types of organization that undertake reengineering.. The first is the desperate type, in which crisis management has taken control in an organization whose costs keep piling up, products and services keep falling behind, and nothing seems to be going right. The second type is the organization that is not facing any immediate threat, but would want to improve its status before being caught up in the storm. The third type includes organizations that are ‘ambitious and aggressive.’ They want to enhance their performance and get a better leverage over their competitors.


Reengineering requires a shift to process orientation, teamwork, IT, and customer focus. Some good BPR tools include process mapping, value analysis, and half-life principle. The reengineering effort is characterized by focusing n process mapping, product and process elimination, process simplification and integration, process improvement, teamwork, and the active leadership and participation of top management in change. Recent field studies have provided evidence that “reengineering, is applicable, without any variations to the concept, to all types of organizations, be they manufacturing, service, non-profit, private, or public.”


I. TQM & BPR Common Grounds and Similarities


Before trying to point out the differences between TQM and BPR, it is more useful to find the similarities. Their similar aspects are summarized in Table 1. These points represent a wide viewpoint and are meant to highlight the broad commonalties between the two approaches, not to suggest that BPR and TQM are similar in their application methodologies. It is worth to note that while BPR and TQM share many of the same dimensions and goals, the two are not mutually exclusive and need to be done jointly.


A. Quality Improvement and Process focus


Both, TQM and BPR, are quality movements that seek to enhance an organizations capabilities for the future. Quality goals concentrate on the reduction of variation in processes and the application of effective measurement systems. Customers play a central role in being the determining factor of the standards of quality. In today’s world, quality is in the eyes of the beholder, i.e., the customer. It is the customer’s perception that counts. BPR has much in common with TQM in hs respect. The definition of the process to be reengineering is in part a technical matter, concerning judgements about where the problem actually lies in the light of available information. Within the organization, this customer-defined quality is translated into process-focus. At the heart of TQM is the idea that improvement comes from addressing the processes, which deliver the defective or inadequate end-results, rather than on concentrating on the results themselves. As for BPR, the process focus is an intrinsic paradigm of the reengineering strategy. Critical success factors are used to identify the organization’s core processes, which will undergo redesign. Conformance quality (meeting customer requirements) and perceived quality (exceeding customer requirements) improve profitability. Reducing waste and increasing productivity are natural by-products of a systematic process of quality improvement. As such, both TQM and BPR aim at improving an organizations operations to enhance its ability in delivering quality products and services with the ultimate aim of augmenting productivity, increasing profitability, and gaining market share.


B. Top Management Support


Setting the stage for quality improvement involves everything that the business does from becoming aware of the need for significant change to establishing a commitment to actually follow through. The desire to actually deliver quality involves senior management’s initiation and continued commitment, constituting the basic drive behind the whole process. It involves goal setting, barrier reduction, training, and leadership. Setting the stage means that one must create an environment in which business improvement is encouraged and nourished. A vision of ‘change for quality’ must accompany such efforts and be dispersed through out the organization. As management establishes the vision of what it wants to accomplish and where it wants to go, it must put in place ‘support systems’ to help employees understand and implement the forthcoming change. To ensure positive results, steering performance must be consistent with the vision.


Without executive sponsorship, the quest for quality, whether in TQM or BPR, is a joke. Leadership is the most important ingredient for launching and sustaining a quality improvement process. Leaders of firms need to establish clear, result-oriented goals and communicate their expectations. Management has the total responsibility for effective management of its quality campaign. Top management must take part in a company’s quality operation and to guide its quality systems. Executive commitment is not only about management, but also about leadership. Leaders establish unity of purpose, direction, and create an environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization’s benefit. The role of management can be sensed in every step along the way. It provides leadership, develops the vision, establishes objectives, pursues strategy, establishes and monitors planning, monitors implementation, provides policy, conveys commitment, assures resources, eliminates barriers, participates, appoints responsibilities, assures customer satisfaction, presents information… and the list goes on and on.


Senior management’s role is to lead the change, not to manage it. It is responsible for shaking the barriers, i.e. removing road-blocks set up within the organization by people opposing change. Senior management must provide inspirational vision of the ultimate goal to be achieved


C. Serious investment in the human resource Empowerment, Teamwork, Training


For any quality campaign to be successful, you need top-down active leadership that facilitates real change and a bottom-up quality management improvement process in order to achieve real sustainable bottom line results. Management’s role is to invest in the campaign by motivating and involving others through broadening the ownership base of the idea. Only when employees develop a sense of ownership, will they embark upon it with true enthusiasm and motivation. Ownership must ultimately rest with the line operations in terms of engagement and accountability, for it is this human element of the organization that will ultimately deliver the quality and present the organization’s image to the final customer. Delivery of quality implies a commitment and dedication, not only by senior management, but also by every single person within the organization, and sometimes outside of it.


Harnessing the skills and enthusiasm of everyone is conditioned on providing employees with the adequate skills, tools, and authority to adapt to and adopt their new roles. TQM and BPR rely for their success on an active subject with interpretive powers. Empowerment and other associated ideas such a participative management, delegation of authority, and decentralization are based on placing responsibility for making decisions in the hands of workers. As one CEO put it “we are only as good as our employees and our employees are as good as we allow them to be.” Despite the risks associated, such concepts have proved to boost job satisfaction, increase motivation, reduce absenteeism, lower turnover, and improve the work environment. Empowerment is not optional, rather a pre-requisite and can be considered one of the basic pillars of both technique. Hammer and Champy assert that “empowerment is an unavoidable consequence of the reengineering project.” Nevertheless, such concepts are under used during application phase of BPR, resulting in various ‘people’ related problems.


From the concept of empowerment follows the concept of group-work or teamwork. Teamwork is a technique where by individual members of a team work together to achieve a common goal. Teams are an essential structural ingredient of both approaches. Teams are needed to meet the challenges of the environment. The increased value placed on empowering employees as a means of improving productivity while simultaneously improving employee satisfaction leads to increased reliance on teams. Employees need to work together to meet new challenges. The theme is central to both TQM and BPR, as it aids communication, improves cooperation, reduces internal competition and duplication of effort, and maximizes talents of employees on a project. Teams are a vital ‘management tool’ given that collaborative decision making allows for creativity. The need for fewer layers of management and more information for better communication and more efficiency will arise. Decreasing hierarchy will also remove organizational blockages to critical change. Hence, employee empowerment will facilitate and quicken the pace of work. Jack Welch, CEO of General Electric and leader of its rebirth in the 180s and the 10s, has become the spokesperson for organizational change. He described the critical importance of cross-functional teams and project teams in the new flattened architecture of GE with fewer layers of management. Cross-functional teams are essential to implement the new managerial role to yield increased value to customers. Teams go hand in hand with management’s assumptions of its new role and flattened organizational culture. As such, reorienting an organization towards quality requires teamwork, both horizontally and vertically, given the fact that teamwork can be very powerful as weaknesses and strengths of individuals are balanced, brainstorming enhanced, and skills and knowledge concentrated. It is vital to build profound knowledge in teams about the business, customers, associates, best practices, technology, and other factors related to the organization. As such, training is a must. Learning must precede thinking and a solid foundation for creative thinking need be established through benchmarking.


In his book, The Circle of Innovation, Tom Peters speaks of the ‘eraser mania.’ The problem with moving on is not about learning new things, but about forgetting the old ones. Organizations are so intent on pushing forward with the new that they forget to help employees let go of the old, thus, overlooking the personal losses of employees involves with change. They often hold on, resisting change. The reasons for this resistance include perceived loss of identity, value and worth in the eyes of the organization, disorientation, and the risk of failure. Continually training and educating employees is necessary due to the pace of change in today’s world, not to mention a TQM or BPR undertaking. Providing training is imperative, especially in the area of team member effectiveness that focuses on skills of active listening, resource sharing, conflict resolution, negotiation, and interpersonal skills � including how to handle contributions, input, and feedback from others about the work. At the same time, upper level management may require training in self-directed team activities to understand what their employees are doing. While an organization may have had in place an extensive training program prior to TQM or BPR, there is no guarantee that the program in place will focus on the skills and abilities needed after the change has occurred. Training should focus on both the technical abilities in the new roles as well as interpersonal skills. Training on teamwork, trust, and decision-making must be emphasized to aid employees in adapting to their new roles. Enhanced individual skills and attributes will better enable teams to be more flexible and responsive to change. Successful change attempts are heavily dependent on training the human resource.


An organization stands and falls with the people in it. It is therefore imperative to understand and anticipate individuals’ expectations, emotions and behavior. This includes managing for fear and resistance to change. Communication is crucial factor not only to an organization’s employees, but also to all its stakeholders, including owners, external customers, suppliers, press, …etc. These aspect are frequently neglected in implementation of TQM, and more so in BPR. While these are intrinsic aspects of the Total Quality Approach, they are only marginal where BPR is concerned. In comparison with TQM, BPR under-rates the ‘human’ dimension.





C. Metrics and Measurement


The selection and application of relevant performance metrics is critical to achieving success. Performance metrics must fit the business objectives and must be customer focused and driven. Todays quality standards are defined by the customers whose needs, desires, and expectations vary considerably. As such, a company should use the same measures as their customers in order to create a common ground for evaluating performance. Results should be directly measurable in terms of customer satisfaction, process cost, process quality, process speed, and ultimately in increased shareholder value and capital creation.


II. TQM vs. BPR Strategy Differences


Table shows a comprehensive list of differences between TQM and BPR, as provided by the literature.


A. Radical vs. Incremental


The major substantial difference between TQM and BPR, it has been argued, is the principle of radicalization. This ‘radical’ element of BPR change is a striking departure from the incremental change of TQM projects. Process reengineering approaches process improvement in a drastic manner wiping out the old and putting in place new processes. While process management is based on the concept of continuous, evolutionary improvement, process reengineering searches for breakthrough improvements and revolutionary methods for doing work. To encourage a radical organizational rethink, the starting point for reengineering is a blank sheet of paper. The reengineering effort tears apart the current process and systematically rebuilds it. Continuous improvement of TQM responds to growing customer needs and expectations and ensures a dynamics evolution of the quality management systems in a slow, but sure mode.


The pace of reengineering is ambitious, in comparison with TQM’s conventional change programs.


B. Innovation vs. Improvement


The other major difference between TQM and BPR has to do with the level of change. A number of authors view organizational improvement activities as points on a continuum ranging from incremental improvement to radical change. Due to its focus on existing processes, TQM will rarely lead to radical innovation; rather it brings about change in a snowball effect so that the end result shows significant departure from the initial state of affairs; but still change and improvement are no more than incremental. It is within this context that the debate arises as to whether or not BPR, as a vehicle of radical change and innovation, is becoming a substitute for the incremental improvement of TQM. The logic behind it is that as the external environment is becoming more volatile and a more radical approach to change is needed. The ‘clean slate’ approach in implementing BPR is in itself a thrust for creative thinking. Separating those responsible for scrutinizing the process from those charged with identifying the role of IT guards against any biases or hindrances created by current system limitations, processes, people, or activities.


The above argument leads to another theoretical debate concerning implementation and the relative merits of ‘clean slate’ verses a ‘dirty slate.’ While, in theory, the ‘clean slate’ allows projects to be modeled without contamination from the status quo, the ‘dirty slate’ approach is regarded as more pragmatic. Michael Hammer advocated beginning the reengineering process with a clean slate ignoring past business approaches and working toward a complete redesign of the entire organization. While this is the ideal approach, Hammer concludes that it may not be feasible in some organizations where limited resources demand that reengineering proceed one division at a time, beginning with the area of the organization that is most amenable to change; Davenport explains that while restricting possibilities for process innovation, and although more difficult in design, the ‘dirty slate’ approach is more realistic, financially viable, and easier to implement. One thing is for sure, BPR, most definitely, does not mean “tinkering with what already exists or making incremental changes that leave basic structures intact.”


C. Risk and Pay-back Period


The pace of reengineering is ambitious, in comparison with TQM’s conventional change programs. As such, high risk due to radical change is a natural consequence of BPR. Reengineering programs promise significant benefits � higher margins, lower expenses, and improved productivity, to name a few. But these efficiencies are seldom gained without trade-offs. The sweeping changes brought about by reengineering cannot fail to influence a company’s risk profile. Risk managers need to devise training programs that will help minimize the impact of change. Reengineering without training and education is unthinkable. Risk management is an inherent part of reengineering. Companies must assess the risks associated with changing business processes. TQM, in contrast to BPR, if of a much lesser risk. It involves neither the radical nor the dramatic changes that are an intrinsic part of BPR; rather TQM addresses the organization from a cultural standpoint that works on changing attitudes and behaviors over a long time period. A short-term focus in TQM weakens the organization and rarely ensures that the ultimate goal is achieved and sustained. It frustrates the people involved because they quickly realize that it takes time to develop the skills, attitudes, and knowledge required to make a difference to customers and to the bottom line. A long term focus, however, signals strong unwavering commitment and eventually wins over the people who must make it all happen. A long-term focus and a sense of urgency are entirely compatible attitudes in TQM and, in fact, are the right ones.


BPR, on the other hand, is a one strike or one shot thing. Its relative short time frame results in quick outcomes, which renders it even more risky. TQM’s incremental improvement-oriented changes are a long-term investment. Miraculous results will not appear overnight, especially because TQM is addressing a ‘culture’ issue. Changing attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs is the most difficult and lengthy process and organization can undergo.


D. Focus Strategy and Customer


TQM programs have highlighted the role of processes in delivering quality. In his book Out of Crisis, Deming stated, “I should estimate that in my experience, most troubles and most possibilities for improvement add up to proportions like 4% that belong to the system and 6% to special causes.” Peppard and Rowland explain that the system’ here refers to the process, i.e., the way things are done, and not who does them. However, TQM programs have placed greater emphasis on the people and techniques aspects rather than on the process elements. TQM’s process focus is towards control and measurement so that variation could be eliminated and quality raised. Implementations of TQM programs, in addition, have often reinforced functional boundaries, overlaying the concept of the internal customer as a means of improving the process interfaces between departments. The clear focus of BPR is processes and minimizing the non-value added content in them. In his book Beyond Reengineering, Michael Hammer speaks of the shift to ‘process centered’ organizations and explained that such a shift is about eliminating non-value adding work and establishing higher performance. Becoming process oriented is all about being customer outcome oriented. BPR seeks to generate ideal processes either from a ‘clean slate’ design, or from systematic redesign of existing processes. The target of the organizational change is the business process, and not the organizational culture, as is the case with TQM. The effectiveness of the change effort can, thus, be assessed with respect to the performance of those processes, not with respect to changes in attitudes, values, and beliefs.


As to the customer focus, Peppard and Rowland assert that while BPR’s primary concern is the external customer, while TQM has introduced more than one type of customer s through the concept of the internal customer.


III. Advantages and Disadvantages


While most researchers and practitioners agree that failures of TQM and BPR, in most cases, are mainly due to misapplications, this does not abolish theory pitfalls. A review of the literature reveals the major strengths and weaknesses of TQM and BPR. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages and bring about improvements, as well as handicaps. BPR rates highly in terms of innovation and IT utilization, while TQM provides the best practices for continuous improvement and customer satisfaction.


A. BPR


In addition to its dramatic quantum leaps, innovative opportunities, and short time frame, BPR possesses the privilege of exploiting Information Technology capabilities. However, its revolutionary nature can be very stressful on the human component of the organization and financially exhaustive.


1. Information Technology


BPR was the first large-scale systematic application of Information Technology (IT) to management. Information technology has become a key enabler for organizational change and is conceived as a mandatory component of all reengineering efforts. It is viewed as a one of the tools for achieving business process redesign. Information technology can provide help in managing large amounts if information efficiently. It can also provide significant improvements in operational performance by short-circuiting supply chains and industry value systems, and it can allow companies to re-consider their business scope. On an operational level, technological solutions can reduce manual work by creating electronic workflow and automating clerical routine tasks. IT also plays an important role in supporting knowledge workers by delivering information timely and accurately, and by facilitating communication and networking.


. BPR and Downsizing


BPR calls for making major changes to a business’s fundamental operations, with cost reduction as the primary goal. Because change associated with BPR often calls for reducing the number of workers, it has been closely associated with concepts like downsizing and rightsizing. The terms have been so confused, that many criticize BPR as resulting in ‘corporate anorexia’ and hollow-shell-corporations’ -- the terms referring to organizations that have viewed BPR as a short-term way to boost profit by gutting a company’s work force that it has lost its essential functions by such trimming. During implementation, BPR often translates into wholesale staff cuts. However, while downsizing may be an often-cited by-product of BPR projects, it definitely does not summarize the reengineering effort. Hammer did tackle this issue and has explained that “downsizing and restructuring mean doing less with less,” whereas reengineering means doing more with less. It is worth noting that, cost cutting approaches is a means for improving efficiency, but does not necessarily elevate effectiveness.


. Neglecting the Human element


The threats and risks that BPR brings along are scary to the people of the organization. Obliteration of existing processes as advocated by Hammer in his very first article on BPR is not only impractical, but also potentially disastrous and doomed to failure in the absence of a culture of change that soothes employees. Reengineering can impose a cultural upheaval on a company. In the absence of a clear vision, fear and turf protection become the main drivers of behavior as people worry that their skills become obsolete or will not be utilized in the new organization, thus loosing their jobs. Most cited BPR downfalls have been due to a failure of adequately addressing human resource questions and a general lack of management understanding and commitment to the reengineering effort. Such failures have been categorized into four elements failure to translate the future vision of the company into appropriate cultural and behavioral expectations that can be communicated to all employees; the absence of systematic means to benchmark current practices against those required to achieve the vision; the lack of a focused development process to help individuals close the gaps between their current levels and those required by the reengineering vision; and the inattention to the supporting HR systems that must maintain the vision. Reengineering neglects to deal adequately with the people of the organization who ultimately determine


whether reengineering works or not. The horrific effects of typical reengineering efforts on the morale and motivation of the survivors are often overlooked. Initiatives often fail because focus has been concentrated on the processes and ignored the people who make them work. Common long-term losses include moral problems


B. TQM


Total Quality Management has also been claimed to have its own pros and cons.


1. Functional Culture


TQM possesses the asset of an effective culture that emphasizes the role of the customer, whether internal or external. It is well known that corporate culture can have a significant impact on an organization’s economic performance. The culture that has resulted in an organization that has undertaken a quality campaign is greatly conducive to corporate goals and strategies. The customer, as well as process focus, the prevention versus inspection policies, fact-based decision making, the highlight on feedback, and most importantly, the care bestowed upon employees install an open responsive culture. The weight placed on continuous improvement through continual learning is significant. Today, organizations have become information-processing networks capable of enhancing their positions only through learning. Learning is a major core value for an organization seeking excellence, as it has become synonymous with quality. A total quality management campaign entails a complete involvement of the entire organization in a management led attempt to achieve success. In such a culture, the employee is king, as he/she is viewed as the ultimate pronouncer of quality. Employees are trained and empowered to take responsible decisions and are considered as collaborates in organizational work. It is such a culture that distinguishes flourishing organizations and allows them to acquire the competitive advantage necessary in order to compete.


. Lack of Strategic Impact


TQM has been criticized on many accounts. Some have argued that the element of continuous improvement mentality inhibits learning. Others have condemned it on the grounds of lacking innovation and radical capability, stating that “incremental change isn’t enough for many companies today. They don’t need to change what is; they need to create what isn’t.” Yet, others have denounced it as deficient in IT focus and utilization. However, the most captious criticism of TQM has been its lack of strategic impact.


VI. Reconciliation and Integration


It is apparent that that there are major problems within the foundations of each individual approach. However, there is also a clear opportunity to unite them to fill each other’s gaps. In an attempt to re-conciliate the two approaches, two theories have erupted. The first integrates BPR under TQM by using the former as a tool or a subset of the latter. Leach considers TQM more likely to lead to success and concludes that BPR is more of a “… designed tool for TQM, but it is not a substitute.” The agreed upon view in this camp is that it is more constructive to incorporate BPR as a valuable tool within the framework of TQM. As Macdonald put it, “TQM provides the essential cultural framework to enable BPR.”


The second camp, on the other hand, entertains the idea of applying TQM after BPR as the latter builds the platform and prepares the stage for the former. TQM can be used to continually improve the company after BPR has radically changed it. Many supporters of this view have summarized it with the clich� “revolutionize and then evolutionize.” But even so, BPR cannot stand on its own without follow up. This follow up is incorporated in the continuous improvement offered by TQM.


While both approaches offer valid arguments, there seems no need to adopt an either/or position. Practitioners can create an integrated model where both incremental and quantum improvements are possible within a continuous improvement environment. In such a model, the building blocks are an integration of the best practices of the two methods building on the strengths of both and eliminating most of their individual weaknesses.


TQMs stable culture, people participation, and evolutionary nature can be used to eradicate or neutralize the stress and fear caused by BPRs revolutionary nature. The changes commensurate with BPR usually scare employees and de-motivate them. For true success in todays environment, management needs to consider employee participation, for which TQM creates the proper cultural milieu for change. BPR, on the other hand, provides the ‘quick strike’ and innovative capabilities, in addition to the best practices of IT. TQMs main contribution would be a continuous change and improvement methodology, without which the solutions that BPR offers will bear little fruit. Both kinds of change can and should be


pursued, even though their requirements are different.


A. Common Weaknesses


Nevertheless, the two approaches fail to address some common weaknesses, which, if left un-addressed, become weaknesses of the integrated model, rendering it insufficient and ineffective.


1. Lack of strategic impact Not conducting strategic business planning to set the future direction of the company prior to starting the TQM initiative has caused major failures. The inherent lack of strategic integrity embodied within TQM is considered to be one of its main flaws. Similarly, in most cases BPR is undertaken to achieve medium-term cost and time saving rather than longer term strategic benefits. A greater focus on learning at the expense of the preoccupation with cost and time could increase the strategic impact of many BPR applications.


. Lack of `people focus The survey conducted by the authors (18) suggested that TQM offers more people focus than BPR. However, the impact of change on people, and the way organizations are dealing with their people, is still considered a problem within both. The failure of many recent large-scale efforts at corporate change can be traced directly to employee resistance, lack of support, lack of enthusiasm and generally lack of the right culture to support the framework.


Managing business productivity has essentially become synonymous with managing change effectively. To this end, companies must not only determine what to do and how to do it they, but also need to be concerned with how employees will react to it. It is becoming increasingly clear that the engine for organizational development is the people who do the work. Without altering human knowledge, skill, and behavior -- changes in technology, processes, and structures is unlikely to yield long-term benefits. ‘Human development has been viewed as a more suitable alternative to `traditional organizational development in a strategy for bringing about dramatic performance improvements. The new work pattern is flexible working hours, knowledge workers, working from home, etc. So while these patterns emerge, organizations must change the way they deal with their people to yield maximum benefits. The success of an organization lies more in its intellectual capabilities than in physical assets. The capacity to manage human intellect and to convert it into useful products and services is fast becoming the executive skill of the age. Thus, the model to be developed will be people oriented where high performance can be achieved only through people.


B. The Proposed Model for ‘Performance Excellence’


Organizations are unique and each must find its path to success by continuously learning and customizing best practices. Thus, this model shall be set up in such a way so as to present a broad framework of generic ideas applicable to all organizations. The model can be considered a recipe; a mixture of best practices from BPR and TQM. However, it is not suggested that such a model will be a silver bullet. Its effectiveness depends on thoroughly understanding the business and the people in it. The aim of the model is to help organizations achieve performance excellence by ensuring a healthy balance between stability and continuous change. Stability comes from a bedrock of culture and values shared by organizational people, supported by a stable strategy, and systems that change only in a `creation or reorientation effort. Continuous change comes from continuous learning, and both aspects rely on fully committed and educated people. Hence, the objectives of the model will be to focus on delighting the customer, to emphasize organizational people as the main competitive advantage and to develop a commitment to continuous learning and improvement;


The model proposes turning organizational attention from cost-cutting and staff reduction


to employee well-being by proposing an equal emphasis on the three main pillars of organization development, i.e. process, people, and information technology. The `process and `IT aspects, however, are continuously changing subject to daily improvements, and can easily be copied by competitors. Thus, the only source of competitive advantage is the organizations people (6.7% of the respondents agreed that having trained, motivated and well-led organizational people would result in performance excellence). According to John Jr. Welch, CEO of General Electric, “the pace of the 0s will make the 80s look like a picnic -- a walk in the park. Competition will be relentless. The bar of excellence in everything we do will be raised everyday.” Successful organizations in the next century will work on the edge of chaos where they must be spontaneous, adaptive, and alive. This, in turn, suggests the


need for human and system flexibility and continuous learning within an organization held together by consistency of purpose, through a clear shared vision and open communication. Processes and people surround, and work for, the customer, and are held together by a clear set of organizational values and goals.


As such, the main building blocks of the model are as follows


1. ‘Customer obsession’ Past attempts to achieve and retain competitive advantage have largely looked internally within the organization for improvement. However, more so in the future, a major source for competitive advantage will come from more outward orientation towards customers and competition will focus on superior customer value delivery. The customer who should enjoy all the attention is the end user, as opposed to internal customers, suggested by TQM.


. Vision and values is he substance that binds the organization together. This includes the strategic planning and management capability, and outstanding leadership. The model proposes integrating the latest techniques of strategic management and thinking within the planning, implementation, and assessment stages. It is also suggested that the main competitive advantage for which organizations must aim is creating a `self-renewal learning culture, with the main competitive weapon being its people. The function of strategic planning in the new management model is to align all the efforts of the organization to customer satisfaction, quality, and operational performance goals. Companies use their strategic planning processes to drive the whole improvement process.


. Business process excellence Process excellence combines the incremental improvements of TQM and the more revolutionary steps associated with BPR. The major enabler for the coming century will be IT. Potentials of IT cannot be left unrealized by an organization aiming to survive in the future. However, businesses must creatively integrate IT with human expertise to meet customer needs.


4. People Organizational people development should be the focal point as the source of future success. Workforce development is a top priority because it is the leverage of an association. The model aims to set out best practices in a culture of participative management, team structure, reward, training and development, recruitment, motivation, commitment, communication and knowledge management.


TQM is based on a set of philosophies that emphasize continuous improvement in processes to increase customer satisfaction. To accomplish this objective, TQM requires flexibility and cross-training, cross-functional team problem solving, employee empowerment and ownership of the process. These are also essential to reengineering. For managers and employees ignorant of TQM and its requirements, a jump into the reengineering bandwagon may spin out of control. Reengineering is certainly risky, but it should be a calculated risk. Professionals experienced with TQM possess the skills necessary to organize and plan the changes designed to increase customer satisfaction, and are, thus, better prepared to utilize those skills on a large scale. In the external environment, for any company, change has become the only constant. Technology changes, information change, competition changes; everything changes and the organization itself need to change. In the midst of this flux rises the need for another constant to counter the effect of change, and that would be a culture of change a culture that adapts the organization to new trends, introduces innovations, fosters creativity, and above all prepares its human element to the turbulence of change paving the way and soothing along the way.


An Example


BTNI, a semi-autonomous unit subsidiary of British Telecommunications plc. is regarded as having a ‘leading edge’ in managing quality and change. The company is an example of an organization that believed reengineering in a crisis situation is inappropriate as crisis in itself promotes fear, confusion, and panic, none of which is conducive to focused BPR. As such, BTNI undertook a number of change strategies before embarking upon BPR, namely BS 5750 / ISO 000 accreditation, total quality, and finally process redesign. Senior management views incremental change brought about by TQM as greatly valuable, but on its own is not enough. They note that TQM has introduced some surface changes to behavior, while underlying processes, which maintain sub-optimal performance, remained untouched. Sometimes shots of radical change that can only be brought by BPR are also necessary. BTNI also notes that upon embarking upon the BPR project, teams made great use of already documented end-to-end processes as part of the TQM efforts. The reengineering implementation teams had to take risks in pursuit of excellence, relying on change management skills and techniques acquired from the TQM experience. (7)


VII. Conclusion


TQM and BPR have arguably been so influential due to the amorphous and comprehensive nature of their philosophies. All things considered, TQM, as well as BPR, are applicable to all business sectors, encompassing all aspects of the business and touching upon all corners of an organization without any constrictions. Neither approach guarantees success. It is not a case of ‘follow the rules in the book and you’ll hit the jackpot.’ It all depends on organizational intelligence and ability to adapt either approach to its own size, form, products, and management.


This paper has presented an argument for integrating BPR and TQM. The individual strengths and weaknesses of each have been shown to complement one another. From the evidence presented, it can be concluded that the way forward for organizational development is an integrated model, one that builds on the best practices of BPR and TQM and adds strategic planning and a stronger focus on people. Although ‘processes’ and ‘IT’ (the main focal areas in TQM and BPR, respectively) are crucial components for success, they are the easiest to perfect in an organization, and can be easily replicated by competitors, thus, providing little competitive advantage. People and knowledge management are perceived to be the main sources for competitive advantage in the future.








Please note that this sample paper on Total Quality Management AndBusiness Process Reengineering An Integrated Model is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Total Quality Management AndBusiness Process Reengineering An Integrated Model, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Total Quality Management AndBusiness Process Reengineering An Integrated Model will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!