Saturday, March 31, 2012

trytr

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on trytr. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality trytr paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in trytr, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your trytr paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



Anatomy & Physiology 1 04/10/0


Body regions


Head


Neck


Write my Essay on trytr for me




Trunk


Chest


Abdomen


Pelvis


Extremities


Each region has a bony skeleton attached. Which will have muscle attachment, which permits movement.


Body cavities


1. Dorsal cavity-


Framework Cranium, vertebrae


Contents � brain, spinal cord


. Thoracic cavity-


Framework ribs, sternum, thoracic vertebrae, diaphragm


Contents heart, lungs, pleura, thymus, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, major vesicles


. Abdominal cavity-


Framework diaphragm, lumbar vertebrae, abdominal muscle.


Contents stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, spleen, aorta, venacavias


4. Pelvic cavity- framework pelvic bones, sacrum, and abdominal muscles. Contents Kidneys, bladder, ovaries, uterus, vagina, testicles not dropped, colon, rectum, anus


Structural units of the body


Cell � the smallest functional unit of the body


Tissue - Collection of cells having similar functions and structure


Organ - Collection of tissues having similar functions and structure


Systems- group of organs having similar functions and structure


Organism � collection of systems, which work together to sustain the independent functioning of the total individual


About the cell


Protoplasum- living substance within the cell. Can be organic or inorganic


Organic materials- chemicals made of carbon. Example protein, fats, carbohydrates


Inorganic materials- chemicals other than carbon. Example water, salts, gases


Electrolytes- salt compounds


Ion’s- electrolytes that have been separated in a solution. Carry an electrical charge


Nucleus- control center of the cell. Contains chromosomes


Chromosomes- Made of DNA. Contains the hereditary traits


Nucleolus- pacemaker of the cell


Cytoplasm - contests of the cell other than the nucleolus. Manufactures RNA and other proteins


Organelle- small structures in the cytoplasm that carries on a specific function


Types of Mitochondria � powerhouse Produces energy and ATP


Endoplasmic reticulum- produces and transports RNA and sterile hormone Ribosomes- produces RNA and other proteins


Golgi apparatus- manufactures glandurol secretions


Centrioles- per cell. Located near the nucleus and active during cell division


Enclusion bodies


Lysosomes- granules containing digestive enzymes


Pigments- melanin (black), hemoglobin (red), bill Rubin (yellow)


Glycogen- starch molicus. Found in liver and muscle cells


Lipids- fat globules


Mucus- sticky substance, protects the passages of the body that open to the outside


Cell membrane Also called plasma membrane. Its function is selective permeability (only allow certain things in the cell and out of the cell) composed of organic molecules that constantly change shape and chemically interact with other molecules.


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Cellular Physiology � methods of moving substances through the cell membrane


Diffusion- movement of a substance through the cell membrane in either direction depending on the concentration of that substance on each side of the membrane. The movement occurs from the side of higher concentration towards the side of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached. Example oxygen, carbon dioxide


Osmosis- (selective diffusion) solution involved is water. The salute involved is glucose or salts. Allows movement from a region of low salute to a region of high salute through a membrane. Permeable only to water.


Osmotic pressure will result from a difference in concentration on either side of the membrane.


Isotonic � equal osmotic pressure


Hypertonic- intercellular pressure (outside cell) is greater than intracellular. CELL WILL SHRINK AND DRAW FLUID OUT.


Hypotonic- Intracellular pressure is greater than intercellular. CELL WILL SWELL AND BURST


Active transport- substances are moved through a membrane from a low concentration to a high concentration. Requires energy to perform the process. Example electrolytes balances


Filtration- processes that pushes water and substances from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure through a membrane. Responsible for the fluid between the cells. Blood pressure causes this process. How the kidney works


Sodium (NA++) and potassium(K) pump- movement of sodium and potassium enzymes from a low concentration to a high concentration. This requires energy. VERY IMPORTANT in maintaining osmotic pressure.


Bulk transport-


Phagocytosis. Cell membrane surrounds an external particle and encloses it within a vacuole and the enzymes from the lysosomes digest it.


Pinalcytosis- similar to phagocytosis except it intakes liquids. Cellular physiology


Tissues


Epithelial-


Char 1) covers all body surfaces


) mostly cellular


) lacks blood vessels


4) protects underlined structures


5) has cells capable of secretions group of these cells are call GLANDS


6) sensitive to sensory stimulation


7) some of the cells are ciliated.





Types 1) Simple squamos- single layer thick, lines internal organs, secretes a cerus fluid and facilitates diffusion and filtration.


) Simple cuboidal - cube shaped, single layer thick. Secretes hormones and is found in the thyroid and ovaries


) Simple columnar- single layer of tall cells, contain goblet cells, which secretes mucus. Found in the lining of the small intestines. Func is absorption and secretion


4) Pseudostratified columnar- hair growing from the cells. Has goblet cells. Found in the nose, trachea, and bronchi. Simulation of the cilia causes coughing and sneezing


5) Stratified squamas- most common type. Several layers of epithelial cells. Can be karentinised or non-karentinised this forms a waterproof protective covering. Found in the epidermis and the interlining of the mouth


6) Stratified columnar � several layers of tall cells. Found in the respitory system and the male reproductive system


7) Transitional � comes from the bladder. Can change shape when pulled or stretched


Connective tissue (CT)-


Char 1) found throughout body


) gives body support as a whole.


) Connects two organs together.


4) Secretes a matrix which is an intercellular substance that fills the spaces between the cells.


5) Encapleates certain organs (kidneys)


6) Has a rich supply of blood vessels.


7) It protects delicate organs with fatty deposits


8) It’s a storehouse for fats.





Types 1) Adipose - fat cells under skin and around body organs, Func reserve food supply, insulation, and shock absorption.


) Areolar � found in subcutaneous tissues, it contains fibrasites which secretes collagen, macrophases which carry out phagocytosis, massed cells which contains histamine causing flamatory process, heparin and plasma cells, the plasma cells contain antibodies.


) White fibers - tendons and ligaments which contains collagen


4) Yellow fibers - elastic fibers found in subcutaneous tissue and gives elasticity to the body.


5) Hyaline Cartilage � hard and smooth, made of collagen. It covers joint surfaces and gives firm but flexible support


6) Fibrous cartilage � flexible and moveable it is found in the nose, ears, trachea and intervertrable disks


7) Blood- aka wandering connective tissue, cells floating matrix. Made in the bone marrow and it distributes nutrients throughout body.


8)Bone � it is made of ostiocytes (bone cells) which secretes a fibrous matrix where the salts of calcium, phosphorous and magnesium are stored. This is what makes the bone hard. Bones provide support and protection for the body.


Char


compact bone- it is very hard, found in shaft of long bones and the outer covering of other bones and it secretes a matrix of concentric circles (rings in a tree)


spongy bone- aka cancelous bone, it contains spaciules which are needle shaped bone fragments and trabeculae which is fibrous cords of ct. This forms a mesh work of bone that fills the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones, this keeps the bones lightweight and strong. It is arranged to absorb shock and stress(webbing)


Periosteum- a fiborous membrane covering outer surface of the bones, it secretes ostioblasts during fracture repair and can increase or decrease in size depending on the activity of the individual.


Epiphysis- growth center of bone. It is found on the ends of long bones and in the center of other bones.


Medulary cavity � red marrow, makes red blood cells granulocytes (group of white blood cells) and platelets(clotting cells) This is found in all bones until maturity and after maturity only on flat irregular bones(ribs) Yellow marrow, this replaces red marrow in long bones. It is composed of ataposed tissue and is a reserve source of energy.


Articular cartilage- made of hyaline cartilage and covers ends of long bones to reduce friction.


Types of bones


1) long bones found in extremities.


) short bones( carpals and tarsals)


) irregular bones(vertebrae)


4) 4 flat bones (ribs, sternum, scapula, skull, pelvis)


Fracture Repair (Osteogenisous)


Stage 1 = Procallus � where hemorrhaging leads to a clot.


Stage = Callus- granulation tissue forms between the pieces of the bone.


Stage = bony callus- periosteum secretes ostoblasts into the callus and secretes a matrix. OSSIFICATION is formed, which is minerals within the matrix that causes bone to harden. Osteoclasts are secreted to reshape the jagged edges of the damaged bone (bone sculpture cells).


Stage 4 = facture healed


Nervous


Char


1) Coordination center of the body


) Stimulus can only travel in one direction along a nerve


) Nerve fibers join together at a synapse(space)


4) Control center(brain and spinal cord) that is nervous tissue


Muscle


Char


1) Contracts when stimulated. Func enables movement


) Maintains posture against gravity


) Helps vital body functions (example digestion, heartbeat, and breathing)


Types


1) Skeletal- striated, voluntary controlled, some reflex action, muscles connect to bone by tendons and the attachment crosses for a joint


) Smooth muscle- nonstriated, involuntary controlled, controlled by the ANS(autonomic nervous system), found in digestive organs


) Cardiac tissue- striated, involuntary controlled, fibers are interconnected, when one fiber contracts the contraction is spread to all other fibers. Found only in the heart





04/11/0


Blood- (wandering ct)


Char


Blood volume �


1) Vary according to species, body weight and age


) Maintains the PH of the body within normal ranges, (normal PH of blood = 7.5- 7.45) ) Acts as a transportation system for food, oxygen(O), carbon dioxide (C0), waste products, heat, hormones, enzymes.


4) Protects the body against antigens(anything foreign to the body) does this by carrying antibodies.


Parts of blood


Plasma- liquid portion of the blood that contains clotting factors. Makes up 55% � 65% of the total blood volume. 0% is water, 10% is proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, gases, hormones and enzymes.





Types of protein in plasma


Fibrinogen- made by the liver, requires vitamin K and functions in the clotting process.


Prothrombin- made by the liver, requires vitamin K and functions in the clotting process


Albumin- most prevalent draws fluid from the tissues into the vessels


Globulin- forms, alpha and beta � transports fats and fat soluble vitamins, Gamma- functions as antibodies of immunity (all of these are made from plasma cells, made in the spleen and lymph notes


Serum liquid portion of the blood(doesn’t have clotting factors), draw blood allow blood to clot spine down and liquid portion of the mixture is cerium.


Cells 5% - 45% of the total blood volume.


Char


1) # from 5 � 7 million per cubic mm


) Size vary with species and measures in micro’s and diameters


) Shape(biconcave disk) does not have a nucleus except birds, reptiles and fish


4) HGB (hemoglobin) contains within the red blood cell. Gives the red blood cell it’s color. Loves o. enjoys carbon monoxide more(co),


5) Made in the bone marrow, made in all bones before maturity and only in flat and irregular bones after maturity


6) Function carries oxygen from the lungs to all body parts, carries carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs


7) Life span � 4 months. The spleen will fragment the old cells and save the hemoglobin for the new cells


8)Anemia � causes. To little hemoglobin, to few cells (mainly animals)


Types RBC (red blood cells, aka Erythrocytes)


WBC (White blood cells)


Leukocytes �


1) 5,000 � 10,000 cubic mm but can go as high as 15,000 if the animal is stressed or excited during blood draw.


) Contain a nucleus


) Larger than red blood cells


4) Their spirifical in shape


5)func some produce and carry antibodies, some carry out phagocytosis, some crawl through capillary walls into tissue spaces ( called diaheapedecyst)


Types of white cells


Granularcytes- formed in the bone marrow, cytoplasm contains granuals, nuclear segments as cell ages, life span appx. 1 hours. Twice the size of a red blood cell


A. Neutrophils � most numerous, they number from 60% - 70%, they stay in blood appx. 10 hours, they increase with bacterial infections, attracted to the site of infection by chemotaxois, travel through dyopedicyst, they care out phagocytosis, decrease with viral infections


B. Eosinophils- number from 1% - %, increase with allergic responses and parasitic infections


C. Basophils- number from ½ to 1%, they are occasionally seen with allergies, they secrete heparin which helps prevent blood clotting, secrete histamine which increases blood flow to the tissues


Agranularcytes (nongranularcytes)- formed in the bone marrow and the organ of the lymphatic system. The cytoplasm does not contain granules.


A. Lymphocytes- smallest white blood cell, they will number from 5% � 5%, they increase to the response of viral infections, they carry antibodies on the surface of the cell membrane, the cytoplasm shrinks with age making the cell become mostly nucleus, life span may expand for many years.


B. Monocytes- number from % � 8%, nucleus and cytoplasm contain vacuals, they will increase with chronic infections, they undergo dyopedicyst and phagocytosis, they circulate in the blood appx. 4 hours, live span several weeks to months


Platelets (thrombocytes) � no complete cells, come from a giant cell called MEGAKARYOCYTES, made in the bone marrow, MEGAKARYOCYTES releases cytoplasmic fragments and as the fragments detach an intercirculation the smaller fragments become platelets and as they pass through the vessels of the lungs the larger fragments break down to produce more platelets.


Clotting mechanism Always found in the blood


• Platelets break apart due to rough edges in vessel


• Releasing platelet factors


• Prothrombin --) Ca+ @ platelet factors --) thrombin


• Fibrinogen --) thrombin --) fibrin (clot)


Stationary blood clot = Thrombus


Moving blood clot = embolus


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Membranes


Char


Combination of or more tissues


Covers and lines body cavities


Divides organs into sections


Types


Serous- secretes a thin watery fluid, reduces friction between the organs, joints and enclosed cavities.


Synovial- thick fluid in the joint spaces, reduces friction


Fascia- does not secrete, supports and retains structures and surrounds muscle bundles


Sclera- outer white layer of the eyeball and protects the deeper structures of the eye


Dermaoter- outer covering of the brain and spinal cord, protects the delicate nervous tissue below


Integumentary system (skin)


Structures


Epidermis- outer layer of epidermis is dead keratinized cells,


Germinal layer- area under the outer layer, living cells that undergo mitosis, replaces the cells that are continuously lost in the outer layer


Pigment color


Dermis- composed of a fibroelastic CT, considered the true skin, firmly connected to the epidermis and loosely connected to the subcutaneous tissues below, good capillary blood supply


Papilary layer- below the germinal layer, origin of ridges and valleys (example fingerprints)


Reticulary layer � below the papillary layer, made of dense CT and elastic fibers, makes the skin stretch, contains nerve endings


Subcutis- composed of adiposed and lose CT, loosely attaches to the skin and underline tissues and structures, adiposed is good insulation


Glands of the skin-


Sudoriferous (sweat glands) - secretes a watery fluid, contains salts and waste products of metabolism, cools the skin by evaporation, found in pads of feet on dogs and cats,


Sebaceous gland (oil glands) � open into the hair follicles, secretions lubricate the hair and skin, secretion is called SEBUM, if accumulates will cause blackheads or cyst


Anal sacks (scent glands) � () located at 400 and 800 around the anus, secretion has a strong odor,


Tarsal gland � secretes and oily secretion along the edge of the eyelid, prevents tear secretions from overflowing the eyelids


Ceruminous gland- found in the ear canal, secretes and waxy material


Projections from the skin (claws, hoofs, fingernails)


Germinal layer - located and the root of claw or nail, has good supply and contains nerve endings


Hair � follicle originates in the dermis, consists of a bulb(root) and shaft, bulb is buried deep into the hair follicle, each follicle has a tiny muscle attached,


Arrector pili - muscle controlled by the sympathetic nerves, contraction of this muscle causes hair to stand up


Alopecia (hair loss)





Please note that this sample paper on trytr is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on trytr, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on trytr will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Thursday, March 29, 2012

report # 2

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on report # 2. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality report # 2 paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in report # 2, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your report # 2 paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



Religion and philosophy can be the same or influence by one another. They were meant to find solutions or answers to an existing problem. Religions were established around 800 B.C.-00 B.C., which was known as the Axial Age. I think human beings are blessed with philosophy, and relgion to live with. I believe we human beings see religion as some kind of philosophy. Dont you think religion is also a way of thinking about how we can live best? And philosophy is all about thinking. So we humans being posses this ability to think and believe, which is a blessing for us.


The first four civilizations to come up with their own religion and philosophy were China, India, Middle East, and Greece. They came up with different solutions to find the answers about everything. India and Middle East beliefs were based on religion, political and social, while China and Greece valued only political and social. China and Greece were identified as non-religious civilization, also known as Secularism. They obtain their answers by thinking. On the other hand, India and the Middle East find their solutions by God and what it says in the bible. I think religion is more influential than philosophy. Religion these days are growing and has been exposing themselves to the telivision, radio, and newspaper.


The creation of hinduism, buddhism, and jainism took place in India. In those religions, they served one or more gods, also called as polytheism. The people who served only one called were called monotheism. Those people originately came from the Middle eastern where judaism, christianity, and islam were born.


Confucianism was very popular around the year 500 B.C. A man named confucious started this great philisophy. When he died his students wrote books about him and his ideas. Confucious was a self educated man, who studied the society to find the answers for everything. The books that Confuciouss students have written for him was all about what their master said. Confucious teachings were about relationships in the family, the society, and the state. He thought humans were between heaven and earth. So if humans behavior becomes bad, then the relation between heaven and earth becomes bad. The relationships in the family were the resposibilites between husband and wife, father and son, mother and daughter, and older brother and youger brother. In the society, relationships were between the old and young, and the rich and poor. In the state, realtionships were between the rulers and subjects. Chinese people used history as a lesson. Educated people were civilized, and uneducated people were not. Confucious also taught his students about moral, gentlemen, and nobility.


Buy cheap report # 2 term paper




When confucianism was abolished. Legalism came around 400 B.C. in China. Legalism was the opposite of confucianism. They had bad views of nature. Legalist ruled china by laws. They made their own laws and punishments. During the Chin dynasty, legalist were in controlled of china. The way they punished people was by killing them slowly. Mens were to serve the army with no choice. They had to bring their own supplies and food.


Legalism created their own enemy and one of them were the taoist Taoism created stability and social order. The taoism was based of the way of nature. They thought nature has a healing power, so they left their to live in nature. Taoism thinks education creates distinction.





Please note that this sample paper on report # 2 is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on report # 2, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on report # 2 will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Wednesday, March 28, 2012

Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



It has been revealed that the higher the social class the higher the levels of educational achievement are. Supporting evidence has been found by Halsey, Heath and Ridge, Government figures, Smith and Noble and Bynner and Joshi.


Halsey et al. defined social class by the father’s occupation. The conclusion of their study is that a service class boy (professional/manager etc.) is four times as likely to be in school at 16, eight times the chance at 17, ten times the chance at 18 and eleven times the chance of going to university compared to a working class boy (manual workers in industry and agriculture)


According to a government survey, The Labour Force Survey, 80% of those from professional backgrounds entered higher education at 18 or 1, compared to 14% of those from unskilled backgrounds.


Another government survey, General Household Survey, shows that 66% of professionals had degree-level qualifications compared to less than 1% of unskilled manual workers.


Do my essay on Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment CHEAP !




Smith and Noble found the amount of pupils gaining five or more GCSE’s at grade C or above had increased by approximately 50% in advantaged, medium and deprived areas. Although they have all increased, the gap between advantaged and deprived areas has too been increased. This is because a 50% rise of an already high figure is greater that a 50% rise of a lower figure.


Bynner and Joshi compared 11,000 people in Britain born in March 158 with ,000 born in April 170. They found that although a greater amount of people were achieving high educational qualifications in the second group the inequalities between the highest and lowest classes were as great as those in the first group.


These statistics show substantial evidence to support the fact that the higher your social class the higher your educational achievement will be. There are different interpretations for the reasons behind social class affecting educational attainment.


The first possible reason is that of class subcultures. Working-class students with the same measured IQ as their middle-class counterparts are less successful in the educational system. Because of this it has been suggested that class stratification is linked with educational achievement and in particular different social classes norms and values that influence the student’s performance within the educational system.


Hyman suggested that it is the different norms and values produced by different social classes that effect student’s educational achievement. Hyman suggests that working classes place a lower value on education; they do this because they believe that there is little room for personal achievement and therefore there is less emphasis placed on continuing school past the minimum leaving age. There is also little value placed on achieving a high occupational status. When evaluating jobs working classes emphasise ‘ stability, security and immediate economic benefits.’ They tend to reject the risks and involvements in aiming for high-status occupations. Hyman suggested that the reason that a lower value is placed on education and high occupational status compared to the middle-classes is because working class members believe that there is little opportunity for personal advancement. Hyman concluded


“The lower-class individual doesn’t want as much success, knows he couldn’t get it even if he wanted to, and doesn’t want what might help him get success”


Sugarman expands on Hyman’s suggestion by saying that it is the parent’s occupation that gives different norms and values to children. Sugarman suggests that the working class parent’s occupations allow less room for promotion and their potential is reached quicker; the ladder they have to climb is shorter than middle class occupations. Because of the lack of need for improving yourself so that you can achieve more, working class parents attach less emphasis to personal gain and educational achievement. In opposition to these working class beliefs, the middle classes emphasise the importance of educational achievement and personal gain. This is because in their jobs there is always a promotion or a higher goal that they can aim for.


Sugarman goes on to say that there are four main beliefs that working classes have Sugarman suggests that these are the reasons why middle classes are disadvantaged in the educational system. They are


· Fatalism � Acceptance of the situation. So children will be taught to accept how the educational system is and will not be encouraged to do better at school.


· Immediate Gratification � Want satisfaction and enjoyment as quickly as possible. This means that working class parents will encourage their children to leave education as soon as possible so that they can gain immediate wage, rather than working longer to gain qualifications so that they can gain better wages.


· Present time orientation � Focuses on now. Working classes emphasise the immediate benefits and denounce long-term benefits and goals. However it is these long-term goals that encourage people to stay in education. This will further reduce motivation for academic achievement.


· Collectivism � Loyalty to the group. In schools the individual is influenced whilst at home a working class child will be socialised to believe that the group is more important. This causes conflict between beliefs and the educational system.





However Sugarman can be criticised on the basis of methodology. The values suggested by Sugarman about the working classes are observed. It therefore could be said that if the circumstances were different then the values portrayed could also be different. For example, working classes might be being realistic rather than fatalistic. They might postpone gratification if they had the resources available so that they could postpone it. They might be future oriented if the opportunities for successful future planning were accessible.


Using this point of view it could be said that working classes portray the same norms and values as any other members of society its just their circumstances that prevent them displaying them in the same way as middle class members.


Another criticism is that both Hyman and Sugarman’s findings are based on questionnaires or interviews. Questionnaires and interviews may not provide accurate information on how they might react in other circumstances.


Finally, their studies can be criticised because similarities between social classes are often ignored and the differences emphasised by sociologists, this could be the same for Hyman and Sugarman.


The above criticisms can also be applied to Douglas’ study. Douglas related educational attainment to a variety of factors, including the quality of the school, the size of the family and the student’s health. The parent’s interest in the child’s education appeared to be the most important factor. He found that middle class parents expressed a higher amount of interest than working class parents. As the child grew older, parental interest and encouragement became more and more important. Douglas suggested that the higher the interest and encouragement the higher the educational attainment was. He suggested that norms and values are given to us during early socialisation. This means that infants have already got an understanding of norms and values before they reach secondary socialisation. Middle class children received more attention and stimulus from their parents compared to working class children. This means that from the start middle class children are achieving higher than working class children.


One criticism of Douglas’ findings is that working class parents may not be less interested in their children’s education just because they don’t visit their child’s school as often as their middle class counterparts. Working class parents might not have time to visit their child’s school due to the demands of their job, working classes work longer, and less stable hours unlike their middle class counterparts who tend to work � 5, Monday � Friday.


Also the National Child Development Study found that 8% of middle class children attend a school with good parent/teacher relations compared to 75% of working class children. This means that working class parents may be put off visiting their child’s school due to the way that teachers interact with them.


Another sociologist is Bernstein; he moves away form the idea that it is the norms and values of a social class that cause educational attainment differences. He argues that the difference is due to speech patterns. Bernstein suggests that the working classes use restricted codes whereas the middle classes use elaborated codes. Restricted codes are a kind of shorthand speech. Those who talk with restricted codes have so much in common that they have no need to make meanings explicit in their speech. Therefore restricted codes are perceived as inarticulate. Bernstein stated that restricted codes are characterised as ‘ short, grammatically simple, often unfinished sentences.’


In contrast to restricted codes, elaborated codes explicitly verbalize the meanings that are taken for granted in restricted codes. It fills in the detail, spells out the relationships, and provides the explanations that are left out by restricted codes.


In schools, Bernstein suggests that only elaborated codes are used, therefore leaving working class children disadvantaged.


Bernstein’s idea of speech patterns can be criticised because Bernstein’s class varies, at times he talks about the working class in general and at others he talks specifically about the lower working class. He lumps together all non-manual workers into a middle class whose members from top to bottom appear equally proficient in handling elaborated codes. Therefore he ignores possible variety within classes.


Bernstein is also criticised because he shows little evidence supporting the existence of elaborated and restricted codes.


Hyman, Sugarman, Douglas and Bernstein all support the idea of subcultural differences between social classes, which may be the cause for different educational attainment between social classes.


Another theory that attempts to identify the reason for different educational attainment between social classes is that of cultural deprivation. The theory of cultural deprivation is derived from the idea of standards deteriorating the lower down the class system you go. This theory states that the sub-culture of low-income groups is deprived or deficient in certain areas, this accounts for the low educational attainment of members of its group. Cultural deprivation places blame on the children, their family, their neighbourhood, and the subculture of their social group.


The culturally deprived child is not only poverty-stricken economically but culturally as well. They lack important skills, attitudes and values that are necessary for high educational attainment. The skills that culturally deprived children lack include linguistic deprivation, experiential, cognitive and personality deficiencies and a range of ‘substandard’ attitudes, norms and values.


When the tripartite system was replaced by the comprehensive system it was generally believed that equality of opportunity would exist because access to all areas of education was freely available to everyone. However the emphasis has changed from equality of access to equality of educational attainment.


According from the cultural deprivation theory, equality of opportunity can only be reached if the education system took into account the deprivations and deficiencies of low-income groups.


The idea of positive discrimination arose from the above thinking. This is the idea that culturally deprived children must be given a helping hand to compete on equal terms with other children. This took the form of compensatory education � additional educational provision for the culturally deprived.


Cultural deprivation theory has been attacked for acting as a smokescreen, which disguises the real factors that prevent equality of educational opportunity. By placing blame on the child and his or her background, it diverts attention from the deficiencies of the educational system.


Cultural deprivation theory can also be criticised for assuming or implying that higher-class cultures are superior to working-class cultures, and therefore placing the blame for the failure of their children in education on themselves.


Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory is different to the cultural deprivation theory because it is strongly influenced by Marxism. Higher social class cultures are not assumed to be superior to working class cultures. Bourdieu argues that different education attainment between different social classes is the fault of the education system and not the working-class culture.


Bourdieu believes that the culture of the dominant class is reproduced through society as a whole. However there is no way of telling whether the dominant class culture is better or worse. Bourdieu refers to the dominant class culture as cultural capital. He does this because through the education system it can be translated into power and wealth. Cultural capital is not distributed evenly throughout the class structure, and this accounts largely for class differences in educational attainment. Students from an upper-class background have an automatic advantage because they have been socialized into the dominant culture.


Bourdieu’s work on cultural capital was influential to Ball, Bowe and Gewirtz. Ball et al. suggest that middle-class parents are in a better position to assure that their children go to the school of their choice. The reasons for this are


· Middle-class parents possess cultural capital � They are more likely than working class parents to have the knowledge or contacts to ‘play the system’. Middle class parents strategies include attempting to make and impression with the head teacher at open days; making a private appointment to meet the head teacher; knowing how to mount a successful appeal; and putting in multiple applications.


· Middle-class parents can manipulate the system � they spend a lot of time and effort researching and visiting schools along with multiple applications and appealing. Middle-class parents have their stamina ‘sustained by knowledge, contacts, time and money’ whereas working-class parents lack these assets.


· Material advantage � Middle classes have material advantages over their working class counterparts as well. They are outlined by Ball et al. as


o Middle class parents can afford to pay for public transport that is needed so that they can send their children to more distant schools. They are also more likely to have cars so that they can take their children to school.


o They are more likely to be in the financial position to move house so that they live in the immediate catchment area of a successful school with a good reputation.


o They are much more likely to be able to afford extra help or tutoring for their child. They are also in a far better position to pay to have their child privately educated.


o Middle-class parents are in a better position to pay for childcare for younger children so that they are left available to take their older children to distant schools.


Ball et al.’s study illustrates how the cultural factors that Bourdieu identified can have an affect on class differences in education.


Boudon argues that inequality of educational opportunity is due to material inequality between social classes. Boudon uses the term position theory to explain the fact that even if there weren’t any subcultural differences between social classes, the fact that people start in different positions in society will produce inequality of educational opportunity.


An example of this is that the costs of living for a working-class and an upper middle-class boy following the same educational course is very different, simply because their starting positions are different. If the upper middle-class boy chose a vocational course such as catering or building, his choice would probably lead to social demotion. The career that he would pursue is of a lower status than that of his father. However if the working-class boy chose a similar course, the course might lead to social promotion, it would be compared to the occupational status of his father. Therefore there is a greater pressure on the upper middle-class boy to select a higher-level educational course, if only to keep his present social position.


Boudon suggests that family and peer group solidarity is affected by course selection. If a working-class boy chooses to become a barrister and follows the required courses, this would tend to weaken both family and peer group solidarity. He would be continuing his education when most of his peers would be going to work, therefore he would be moving in different circles and living a different lifestyle. In contrast to this, if a upper middle-class boy chose the same path he would probably be aiming for a job at the same level at most of his peers. His family solidarity would be increased as well because his future occupation will be of a similar status to that of his fathers. Again, the position of both of those boys in their social class affects the boy’s individual career path.


Cultural deprivation theory, cultural capital theory and Boudon’s positional theory all attribute great emphasis on cultural factors. However another perspective is that material factors are the main influence in regards to the different educational attainment between different social classes.


Smith and Noble suggest that money is the main reason for the different educational attainment between social classes. They argue that lower classes may lack the money that is needed to provide their children with the educational opportunities that middle- and upper class parents provide.


Smith and Noble suggest that marketization increases polarization between successful, well-resourced schools in affluent areas and under-subscribed, poorly resourced schools in poor areas. Marketization is control by market forces. An example as to why this is important is that if a book is vital for a course but its expensive only those who can afford it will be able to use it, therefore limiting the available knowledge. This is only a little example but if multiple books are needed for many courses, the expense builds up and it may be difficult for lower social classes to be able to pay for the books, and because of this the individual is unlikely to choose the course. Therefore marketization increases the educational attainment differences between social classes.


Smith and Noble point out that there are also hidden costs. These include school clothing, meals, transport to and from school and sometimes equipment, materials and school trips. There are previsions to help supply these to children but there have been cut backs. Poor children are entitled to grants but they are not compulsory. This might affect the child’s education because they would have to make do with second-rate material and not go on school trips. This therefore means that their educational experience wont be as rich as those who come from higher class backgrounds who can afford new equipment and can afford to go on school trips.


In conclusion, I think that subcultural, cultural and material factors all affect the different educational attainment found between different social classes. Halsey et al. found supporting evidence, they argued that parent’s attitudes to education and the level of the parent’s education (family climate) affected the child when deciding what type of secondary school the child should attend. However once the child was at school family climate didn’t affect the child’s progress very much. Also they found that material circumstances affected how long the child stayed in school. Material disadvantage was more important than family climate when making this decision.





Please note that this sample paper on Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



„Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on „Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality „Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in „Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your „Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



„Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“


Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchie


in der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels


Hiram Kümper (Ruhr-Universität, Bochum)


Do my essay on „Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels CHEAP !




Abstract


The essay deals with the destinctions of Freedom as being developed in Eike von Repgows Sachsenspiegel (saxonian mirror), one of central Europes most important legal sources of the Late Middle Ages. It extenses the thesis that was Eikes destinction were probably inspired by a favour for numeric symbolism rather or other idealistic thoughts than by actual legal reality.


Inhalt


A. Einleitung


I. Vorüberlegungen


II. Eike von Repgow und der Sachsenspiegel


B. Darstellung


I. Die Stände der Freien im Sachsenspiegel


I.1. Schöffenbarfreie


I.. Pfleghafte


(a) Die grundherrliche Deutung


(b) Die städtische Deutung


(c) Die Heersteuer- bzw. Siedlungsdeutung


I.. Landsassen


II. Weitere soziale Gruppen


C. Zusammenfassung


A. EINLEITUNG


I. Vorüberlegungen


Fragestellung und Zielsetzung


Der Sachsenspiegel gilt gemeinhin als eine der bedeutendsten Rechtsquellen des deutschen Mittealters. Dies resultiert vor allem aus seinem enormen Einfluss nicht nur auf die Rechtsliteratur, sondern vielmehr � und das eingedenk seines Charakters als Privataufzeichnung � selbst auf die offizielle Rechtssprechung in einem Rahmen, der sowohl zeitlich als auch geographisch gewaltig ist.


Jedoch findet sich bereits bei Heinrich Mitteis der Hinweis Habe ich ein Rechtsbuch, so weiß ich noch nicht, inwieweit es lebendiges Recht spiegelt. So soll an dieser Stelle der Frage nachgegangen werden, ob der Ssp. tatsächlich ein „Spiegelbild“ der sächsisch-ländlichen Bevölkerung des 1. Jahrhunderts wiedergibt. Die Wahl der Ständegliederung zum Thema, das nicht im strengen Sinne eine Rechtsnorm, vielmehr eine Anzahl von Rechtsinstituten behandelt, erwies sich hier gleichermaßen strittig wie, darum auch, dankbar.


Zuvorderst sind jedoch zwei Begrifflichkeiten des Untertitels zu kennzeichnen Zum einen das Spezifikum „landrechtlich“, zum anderen der genaue Begriffsumfang von „Hierarchie“ in diesem Kontext.


Es müssen also zunächst jene Personen gekennzeichnet werden, die überhaupt in den Rechtskreis des Landrechtes fallen LdR I nennt hier Schöffenbarfreie, Pfleghafte und Landsassen. Diese drei Gruppen sollen zentraler Inhalt der Untersuchung werden; der heute kontrovers diskutierte Begriff der „Vollfreien“ mag in diesem Zusammenhang zunächst noch genügen . Weiterhin werden Biergelden, Dienstleute, Latelude und Dagewarchten als � um in der Terminologie zu bleiben � „Minderfreie“ aufgeführt . Ebenfalls genannt, aber kaum weiter spezifiziert und daher auch an dieser Stelle vernachlässigt werden die Freien Herren des textus prologi, soweit sie landrechtlich bestimmbar, d.h. sächsischen Rechtes sind. Kein Landrecht besitzen Kinder , Spielleute, Kämpen, Pfaffen und unehelich Geborene . Mit Eintritt in den geistlichen Stand verliert ein jeder das Landrecht , womit auch diese Personengruppe außerhalb der Untersuchung steht.


Wenn nun von Hierarchie gesprochen wird, so ist auch die Definition eines hierarchischen Kriteriums unabdingbar. LINTZEL bietet das Wergeld als „sozusagen de[n] Maßstab des Standes“ . Dies scheint zumindest in Hinblick auf die „humoristische Scheinbußen und Scheinwergelder“ der Dargewachten und anderer Minderfreier in LdR III 45,8f. problematisch. Da sich das Wergeld aus dem jeweiligen Gerichtsstand ergibt, mag dieser als Anhaltspunkt dienlicher erscheinen. Er wird jedoch wiederum von zwei Kriterien bestimmt Der Geburt als Voll- oder Minderfreier, sowie für die Gruppe der (Voll-)Freien durch ihr Vermögen an Eigen. Es ist gerade dies ein besonderes Merkmal der Freien des Landrechtes, die adeligen und dienstmännischen Schichten der Nobiles entwickelten sich außerhalb der Gerichtsverfassung .


II. Eike von Repgow und der Sachsenspiegel


Eine Quellenbeschreibung


Noch vor der eigentlichen Darstellung sei kurz der zu Grunde liegende Text umrissen. Das Rechtsbuch wird auf den Zeitraum zwischen 10 und 15 datiert, da zum einen die confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis von 10 bereits Verwendung findet , zum anderen aber in LdR III6, das Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg, das 15 geschaffen wurde, bei der Aufzählung der sächsischen Fahnlehen fehlt.


Der Ssp. liegt in unterschiedlichen Textfassungen und �schichten vor, deren Klassifizierung durch HOMEYER allgemeine Anerkennung findet und durch die weitere Differenzierung ECKHARDTs weiter ergänzt wurde .


Über den Autor, Eike von Repgow (heute Reppichau), ist wenig bekannt. Er wird zwischen 10 und 1 sechsmal urkundlich erwähnt und tritt als Zeuge vor Gericht auf . Sein Stand war lange Zeit Gegenstand der Diskussion, mehrheitlich tendiert die Forschung jedoch zu der Annahme, er sei Dienstmann des Grafen von Anhalt gewesen .


Die Frage nach der Autorschaft Eikes in Bezug auf die Sächsische Weltchronik ist von der jüngeren Forschung neu bewertet, größtenteils tendenziell verneint worden , womit neue Prämissen für Einzelaspekte der ideengeschichtlichen Untersuchung des Ssp. geschaffen werden .


B. DARSTELLUNG


I. Die Stände der Freien im Sachsenspiegel


Schöffenbare, Pfleghafte, Landsassen


Der Ssp. scheidet die Stände der Freien dreifach voneinander Zum einen im Hinblick auf ihre Dingpflicht in LdR I , -4, zum zweiten in der Wergeldtabelle LdR III 45, und schließlich im Verzeichnis der Prozessbußen in LdR III 64. Im Folgenden seien die drei Gruppen jeweils für sich im Hinblick auf ihre Darstellung zum einen im Ssp. selbst, zum anderen in der Interpretation der Forschung, dargestellt.


I.1. Schöffenbarfreie


Die Schöffenbarfreien sind seit Einsetzen der Sachsenspiegelforschung ein strittiges Thema, dem gerade die frühste Forschung hohen Stellenwert beigemessen hat .


Zunächst sei das Bild, das der Ssp. übermittelt kurz zusammengefasst Die Schöffenbarfreien bilden den ersten Stand der Freien nach Land, gleichzeitig aber auch den fünften Heerschild nach Lehnrecht. Ihr Eigen muss mindestens drei Hufen betragen und als Stammgut (hantgemal) ausgewiesen sein . Sie genießen eine Reihe von rechtlichen Privilegien , vor allem können nur Schöffenbarfreie ein Gericht zu Lehn erhalten . Des Weiteren können sie über alle Personen und Sachen richten, über sie selbst aber nur Ebenbürtige im Grafengericht unter Königsbann . Ihr Eigen fällt im Falle fehlender Erben an die Grafschaft .


Das Wergeld der Schöffenbarfreien liegt bei 18 Pfund, ihre Busse bei 0 Schilling, was der Summe der Fürsten und freien Herren entspricht , weshalb nach DROEGE „landrechtlich […] zwischen den genannten Personenkreisen hinsichtlich ihrer Geburt kein Unterschied“ bestehe. Diese Feststellung ist in mancherlei Hinsicht problematisch.


Bereits ZALLINGER weist nach, dass die Schöffenfähigkeit der Schöffenbarfreien nur sehr geringen Niederschlag zumindest in der ostfälischen und ostsächsischen Rechtswirklichkeit fand und, dass die dortigen Schöffen zumeist Ministerialen gewesen seien .


ECKHARDT löst dieses Problem insofern als er schöffenbarfrei nicht als ein Unterscheidungskriterium zwischen Freien, sondern vielmehr zwischen verschiedenen Schichten von Ministerialen versteht. Demnach habe sich eine Schicht von ehemals Freien vor dem Eintritt in die Ministerialität ihre Schöffenbarfreiheit als ein Privileg vorbehalten . Dies mag auch das weitestgehende Fehlen dieser Personengruppe in den Urkunden erklären, so sie in diesem Fall entweder - als schöffenbar und also „frei“ - den Freien oder � in ihren Funktion als Dienstmannen � den Ministerialen zugeordnet worden wären.


Dieser These sind allerdings die Textpassagen zur Stellung von Dienstmännern vor Gericht in Abhängigkeit von ihrem Herrn entgegenzusetzen . Der Glossator mag dieser Überlegung näher gestanden haben, wenn er es für notwendig hält, die Abhängigkeit der Ministerialen aus dem verliehenen Gut, nicht aber aus ihrer Person heraus zu betonen .


Nicht letztendlich zu widerlegen ist auch die Hypothese, dass die Schöffenbarfreien an sich eine Wortschöpfung Eikes selber sein mögen, zumal die weiteren urkundlichen Belegstellen möglicherweise erst nach der Entstehung des Ssp. zu datieren sind , d.h. hier eine Übertragung des Rechtsbuch auf die Rechtswirklichkeit und nicht umgekehrt zumindest möglich ist. Fraglich erscheint zumindest in diesem Zusammenhang LdR I 6,


„[…] Die schult sal der man gelden, ab her ez geinret wirt alse recht iz mit zwen unde sobenzig mannen, die alle schephenbare sint adir echte geborene laten.“


Hier wird lediglich eine Unterscheidung zwischen Schöffenbaren und echt geborenen, d.h. voll rechtsfähigen Laten getroffen; die Pfleghaften bzw. Biergelden bleiben ungenannt. Dies wiederspricht dem sonstigen Gebrauch des Wortes im Text, liest sich hier doch der Begriff Schöffenbare eher als Gesamtheit der Freien in Abgrenzung zu den minderfreien Laten. Der Klassifizierung HOMEYERs folgend, gehört diese Stelle auch bereits zur ersten, d.h. ältesten und mit größter Sicherheit noch von Hand Eikes verfassten Klasse der Ssp.-Texte .


I.. Pfleghafte


Die Quellenlage abseits des Ssp. ist auch in Bezug auf die Pfleghaften ausgesprochen dünn .


Das Rechtsbuch selbst zeichnet ein ebenfalls sehr knappes Bild; es ist in wenigen Textstellen dargestellt Das Eigengut der Pfleghaften beträgt weniger als Hufe, erbenloses Eigen fällt an den Schultheißen . Ihr Wergeld beträgt 10 Pfund, ihre Buße 15 Schilling, die Prozessbuße hingegen 8 Schilling . Sie besuchen alle sechs Wochen das dompröpstliche Sendgericht bzw. das Schulzending und leisten damit die aus ihrem Eigen entspringende Dingpflicht ab. Der Fronbote wird aus dem Kreis der Pfleghaften bestimmt . Den Schöffenbarfreien sind sie explizit nicht ebenbürtig .


Im Ssp. werden den Pfleghaften die Biergelden in der Zuständigkeit des Gerichts, sowie in Buß- und Wergeldern gleichgesetzt. Möglicherweise eher daraus als aus einem tatsächlichen Rechtszustand resultiert auch die Gleichsetzung beider Gruppierungen in der zugehörigen Glosse . Zumindest aber bleibt festzuhalten, dass die Biergelden (bargilden, barscaldi) als gesellschaftliche Gruppe weit problemloser nachweisbar sind.


Die Glosse gibt weiterhin an, die Pfleghaften und Biergelden seien tome gude geboren, eine Bezeichnung, die sich ansonsten in Bezug auf die Laten findet . Andererseits verfügen sie aber über Eigen. DROEGE sieht hier ein Beispiel sozialer Mobilität, gerade auch zwischen den freien Schichten der Pfleghaften bzw. Biergelden und den eigentlich hörigen Schichten der Laten unter den besonderen Verhältnissen im ostsächsischen Entstehungsgebiet des Ssp. .


Zu der geringen Urkundenüberlieferung in Bezug auf die Pfleghaften tritt das Problem, dass ebenso das gräfliche Gericht von einem Schultheiß als Vertreter des Grafen geführt werden konnte. Dies lässt die Frage nach der eigentlichen Unterscheidbarkeit von Grafen- und Schultheißending im landrechtlich-ständischen Sinne virulent werden. Wenn sich also BEYERLE über die urkundlich überlieferten Schultheißengerichte verwundert, denen doch mehrheitlich Fälle anhängen, die nach Auffassung des Ssp. vor das echte Ding des Grafen gehören, so mag sein Erklärungsmodell vom „Verfall der echten Grafschaftsdinge“ nur allzu gezwungen erscheinen und vielmehr die Vermutung doch zumindest nahe liegen, der Spiegler möge hier schlicht kein wirklich praktiziertes Recht spiegeln. MOLITOR hingegen unternimmt den Versuch, das Schultheißending als eine Sonderform für Rodungssiedler zu deuten . Dies geht zumindest mit der Beobachtung einher, dass der Schultheiß als Rechtsinstitut im Sinne des Ssp. in Westfalen m.E. gar nicht und in Niedersachsen nur vereinzelt nachweisbar ist .


Das Sendgericht des Dompropstes allerdings mahnt bereits MOLITOR als urkundlich schlechthin nicht greifbar , auch die neuere Literatur kann hier keine weiteren Erkenntnisse bieten.


In der älteren Forschung, der bis heute in diesem Punkt keine weiteren Untersuchungen beigetreten sind, finden sich drei übergeordnete Erklärungsansätze. Einigkeit besteht darüber, dass die Bezeichnungen „Pfleghafte“ bzw. „Biergelden“ auf eine bestimmte Weise Zahlungs- bzw. Leistungspflichten einschließen. Uneinigkeit herrscht wiederum über den Charakter dieser Leistungen, die teilweise als Zins, teilweise als Pflege bezeichnet werden. Ein genaues Unterscheidungskriterium zwischen Zins und Pflege gibt der Spiegel nicht, eine Gleichstellung kann aber ausgeschlossen werden, da Zins und Pflege in mehreren Textstellen zusammen auftreten .


(a) Die grundherrliche Deutung


Die Einreihung der Pfleghaften in einen grundherrlichen Kontext und damit die Bestimmung der Pflege als grundherrliche Abgabe ist bereits früh auf Ablehnung gestoßen. Vertreten ist sie namentlich in den rechtsgeschichtlichen Überblicksdarstellungen des 1. Jahrhunderts, so bei WALTER und SCHULTE .


FEHR steht den grundherrlichen Deutungsansätzen zwar kritisch gegenüber, bemängelt aber in der Hauptsache methodische Fehlgänge und nimmt die Pfleghaften in seinen hypothetisch formulierten Schlussbetrachtungen für „die Nachkommen der alten Biergelden“, die nur einen Teil ihres Gutes in grundherrliche Abhängigkeit gegeben, sich aber gleichzeitig freies Eigen behalten haben .


(b) Die städtische Deutung


HECK vertritt in Anschluss an Richard SCHRÖDERs negativen Befund bezüglich der den Pfleghaften zugewiesenen Gerichte im ländlichen Raum die Theorie, diese seien im weitesten Sinne Stadtbürger gewesen, die Pflege insofern eine städtische Abgabe oder Leistung . Er sieht in ihnen die Nachkommen der Mundlinge karolingischer und nachkarolingischer Zeit. Ein letztendlicher Nachweis dieser Annahme findet aber weder in seiner Abhandlung zu den Pfleghaften noch in seinem Beitrag zur sächsischen Standesgeschichte „Blut und Stand“ statt, hingegen bringt AMIRA zwei urkundliche Gegenhinweise vor . Die Folgerung, in den oberen Schichten der, nun städtischen, Pfleghaften wiederum auch die von ZALLINGER vermissten unteren Schöffenbarfreien wiederzufinden, erscheint wenig schlüssig, die Behauptung, „die Differenzierung zwischen Pfleghaften und Landsassen beruh[e] auf der Entwicklung der Stadtverfassung“ bleibt ohne weiteren Nachweis apodiktisch . Seine Theorie stieß entsprechend meistenteils auf Ablehnung , weitestgehend geprägt von Animositäten zwischen HECK und seinen Kritikern.


(c) Die Heersteuer- bzw. Siedlungsdeutung


Auf weitere Zustimmung ist die Annahme gestoßen, die Leistungen der Pfleghaften als eine Ersatzzahlung für die karolingische Heersteuer zu deuten, die minderbemittelte Bauern gegen Zahlung eines Zinses von der Heerpflicht befreite. Diese Theorie findet sich bereits bei STOBBE, expliziert wird sie in BEYERLEs umfangreichen Aufsatz über die Pfleghaften . Mit einer solchen an die karolingische Heersteuer zumindest mentalitätsgeschichtlich anknüpfenden, allgemein gewordenen Steuerpflicht für besitzschwächere Freie gegenüber dem Grafen gegen Ende des 11. Jahrhunderts erklärt er auch die begriffliche Gleichsetzung von Pfleghaften und Biergelden .


Dieser Siedlungsdeutung schließt sich auch MOLITOR an, der in den Pfleghaften des Ssp. ebenso wie in den Biergelden Freibauern sieht, die von den Landausbauanstrengungen Heinrichs IV. her Rodungsland unter königlichem Forst- und Bodenregal besaßen für das sie einen Zins - genauer eine Pflege � an den König, später den Grafen zu zahlen hatten . Er will aber die Festlegung auf einen karolingischen Ursprung unter Berufung auf bereits bei BEYERLE angeklungene Schwierigkeiten vermeiden . DROEGE fasst die Pflege in Anlehnung SCHULZE als eine reine Schutzzahlung .


I.. Landsassen


Im Gegensatz zu den beiden vorgenannten sozialen Gruppen sind die Landsassen zwar urkundlich vielfach belegt, allerdings ist der Bezeichnungsumfang des Wortes dergestalt weit gefasst, dass selbst Körperschaften oder einem Landesherrn unterstehende Adelige unter ihn fallen können .


Der Ssp. hingegen fasst die Landsassen als diejenigen, de nen egen hebbet in ’me lande, vielmehr solche, die komen unde varen in gastes wise . Dazu können freigelassene Dienstmänner oder Eigenleute gehören . Sie sind personell frei, d.h. sie unterliegen keiner Bindung an die von ihnen bearbeitete Scholle, aber für den bewirtschafteten Boden abgabepflichtig. Sie sind in den Prozessabgaben mit 10 Pfund Wergeld und 15 Schillingen Buße den Pfleghaften und Biergelden gleichgestellt, unterstehen aber dem Gografengericht , also einer nicht prinzipiell vom König abgeleitete Instanz, wie dies bei den beiden zuvor behandelten Ständen der Fall ist.


Die Forschung behandelt die Landsassen nur sehr marginal, wohl vor allem, weil sie als Stand verhältnismäßig klar umrissen und nachweisbar sind. Ihre Rolle als Kleinbauern auf Pachtland lässt wenig Raum zur Interpretation, zumal verglichen mit den vorgenannten Gruppen. STÜVE wirft in seiner Schrift zu den westfälischen Gogerichten die Frage auf, woraus wohl die Dingpflicht der Landsassen resultiert haben möge, so sie doch für Pfleghafte und Schöffenbarfreie aus dessen Eigen entspringt . Der Spiegel selbst bleibt hier die Antwort schuldig.


II. Weitere soziale Gruppen


Laten, Dienstmänner, Frauen, Rechtlose


Neben den drei Ständen der Freien nennt der Ssp. eine Anzahl minderfreie sozialer Gruppen, die es kurz zu umreißen gilt. Generell gilt hier, dass sich das Grafengericht für zuständig erklären kann , die eigentlichen Gerichtszugehörigkeiten bleiben aber hinlänglich unbehandelt.


Dienstleute fallen prinzipiell nicht unter das Land-, sondern unter ihr spezielles Dienstrecht, dass der Spiegler der großen Varietäten wegen explizit nicht aufführt . Dennoch führt der Ssp. eine Reihe von Bestimmungen für sie auf So erben und vererben sie nur innerhalb der Gewalt ihres Herrn, innerhalb dieser aber alse vri lude na lantrechte . Sie können frei, d.h. auch außergerichtlich, durch einfachen Vertrag getauscht werden . Ihre Stellung vor Gericht steht in starker Abhängigkeit zu ihrem Herrn .


Die Laten sind Bauern, deren Recht am Boden nicht weiter spezifiziert, nur geschichtlich erläutert wird . Ihr Wergeld ist mit Pfund unterhalb dessen für Pfleghaften und Landsassen angesetzt, ihre Buße aber übersteigt mit 0 Schilling, 6 Pfennigen und einem Heller die der vorgenannten . Ebenso sind sie, wie auch die Pfleghaften und Biergelden, tome gude geboren . Diese seltsam anmutenden Verbindungen zwischen beiden Gruppen bedürfen sicherlich näherer Untersuchung, die die Forschung bisher schuldig bleibt.


Die Laten besuchen dasselbe Gericht wie die Dargewachten, das aber außer der Pflicht des Herrn, sie vor Gericht als Eigenleute, also dat he sin ingeboren egen si, zu reklamieren . Beide Gruppen unterscheiden sich dahingehend, dass die Laten über ein Gut verfügen, das allerdings nicht ihr Eigen ist, wohingegen die Dargewachten einfache Arbeiter sind .


Die Frau is ok des mannes genotinne tohant alse sie in sin bedde trit, erst nach dessen Tode ist sie ledich von des mannes rechte . Ihre rechtliche Stellung wird im Ssp. zur Hauptsache im Hinblick auf das Erb- und Besitzrecht erläutert . Im Übrigen steht sie größtenteils unter der Vormundschaft ihres Mannes oder eines männlichen Familienmitgliedes und wird als kategorisch wehrlos in den besonderen Schutzbereich der Befriedeten eingereiht . Witwen und Unverheiratete genießen dabei tendenziell mehr Rechte .


Die Universität Tufts, Massachusetts widmete der rechtlichen Situation der Frau in den Darstellungen der vier überlieferten Bilderhandschriften 18 eine Ausstellung . Eine umfangreiche, jedoch in manchen Teile nicht unkritisch rezipierte Darstellung hat Mariella RUMMEL vorgelegt .


Auch kennt der Ssp. eine Gruppe von rechtlosen Personen . Dies meint einerseits Personen, die unter Bann gekommen sind, zum anderen gesellschaftlich verachtete Gruppen. Erstere werden allerdings erst nach einer Frist von Jahr und Tag für tatsächlich rechtlos erklärt .


Die Einschränkung, des Satzes „Spillute … di sint alle rechtelos“ hat SCHEELE in seiner gleichnamigen Arbeit auf die niedrigsten Vertreter dieser Berufsgruppe relativiert . Die Rechtlosigkeit ist nicht mit dem Fehlen eines generellen Rechtschutzes, einer historisch-belletristisch verbrämten „Vogelfreiheit“ eines Outlaw, gleichzusetzen, vielmehr steht auf die Erschlagung eines Rechtlosen dennoch der Tod durch Enthauptung, ebenso wird die Notzucht an fahrenden Frauen unter Strafe gestellt . Dennoch ist ihr Rechtsschutz ein eingeschränkter Rechtlose können keinen Vormund bekommen, ihre Verteidigungsform bei Klage vor Gericht ist das Gottesurteil, nicht der Eid. Der Spiegler weist Rechtlosen dennoch Wer- und Bußleistungen zu, die aber kaum realistischen Gehalt haben dürften .


C. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG


Die Ergebnisse der Forschung zeigten bereits sehr früh, dass das Ständebild des Spiegels in keinem Fall eine wirklichkeitsgetreue, tatsächlich spiegelnde Wiedergabe sein könne. Möglicherweise überspitzte Formulierungen, beispielsweise ZALLINGERs vernichtendes Urteil einer „Fälschung der Wahrheit“ sollten hier nicht zum Anlass vorschneller Metakritik genommen, sondern vielmehr einem wissenschaftlichen Duktus zugeschrieben werden, der dem heutigen in vielen Punkten nicht mehr entspricht. Zwar neigen die Untersuchungen der älteren Forschung zu polarisierenden Darstellungen zwischen völligem Trug- und wahrheitsgetreuem Spiegelbild , an den Ergebnissen der jeweiligen Einzeluntersuchungen vermag dies jedoch wenig zu ändern.


Gerade der westfälische Raum weist in seinen Rechts- und Sozialstrukturen - als Beispiel sei nur an den oben genannten Schultheißen erinnert - deutliche Unterschiede zu den Beschreibungen des Ssp. auf. Eben dieses gilt auch für das Sozialbild des Spiegels, insbesondere in Bezug auf die Stände der Freien, deren Schöffenbarfreie, wie auch die Pfleghaften zwar zu einem gewissen Grad plausibel erklärt, nicht aber letztendlich nachgewiesen werden konnten. Dies wiederum wirft die Frage auf, warum der Spiegler, möglicherweise gar wider besseres Wissen, dieses spezielle Bild der sächsischen Gesellschaft zeichnet. Auf die größte Akzeptanz stößt wohl das Erklärungsmodell einer besonderen Vorliebe Eikes für eine Zahlensymbolik, die vom einen Got des Prologs, der selve recht ist, über die zwei irdischen Gewalten zur Dreiteilung der Freien, der Siebenzahl der Heerschilde, etc. fortschreite . Weitere Ansätze, die sich auf Persönlichkeit und Stand Eikes beziehen, mögen teils plausibel erscheinen, sind aber auf Grund der schlechten Quellenlage in Bezug auf den Spiegler selbst kaum stichhaltig nachzuweisen und werden diesen Status einer gewissen Plausibilität kaum überschreiten können. Jedenfalls erscheint es unwahrscheinlich, dass Eike weitgehende Kenntnisse außerhalb des von ihm der Urkundenüberlieferung nach bereisten, geographisch verhältnismäßig engen Raums Ostfalens erlangt haben könnte. Die diversen Versuche, die Autorität des Spieglers gleichsam zu retten, seine Darstellung als spiegelndes Abbild der Rechtswirklichkeit erklärbar zu machen, müssen m.E. als gescheitert betrachtet werden, zumindest jedoch kann SCHWERINs Feststellung, „wie einfach die Bestimmungen des Spiegels verstanden werden können, wenn sie einer ruhigen Betrachtung ausgesetzt sind“ , in diesem Sinne kaum beigetreten werden.








Quellen


REPGOW, Eike von Das Landrecht des Sachsenspiegel, hrsg. von Karl August ECKHARDT, . bearb. Aufl., Göttingen 155


REPGOW, Eike von Das sächsische Landrecht nach der Berliner Handschrift vom Jahre 16. Des Sachsenspiegels erster Theil (Sachsenspiegel I), hrsg. von Karl Gustav HOMEYER, Berlin 1861


Die Artikeleinteilung folgt nicht den Vorschlägen ECKHARDTs, sondern gleich der gängigen Literatur weiterhin der beigefügten Zählung der Vulgataausgabe HOMEYERs. Die Glosse wird ebenfalls nach dieser Ausgabe zitiert.


Literatur


AMIRA, Karl von Pfleghafte, in ZRG GA 8 (107), S. 45-47


BADER, Karl Siegfried Dorfgenossenschaft und Dorfgemeinde, Köln u.a. 16


BUCHDA, Gerhard Die Dorfgemeinde im Sachsenspiegel, in Die Anfänge der Landgemeinde und ihr Wesen II (VF 8), Sigmaringen 186


BEYERLE, Konrad Die Pfleghaften, in ZRG GA 5 (114), S. 1-45


ECKHARDT, Karl August Eike von Repgow und Hoyer von Valkenstein (Sachsenspiegel IV), Hannover 166


FEHR, Hans Die Grundherrschaft im Sachsenspiegel, in ZRG GA 0 (10), S. 64-8


GAUPP, Ernst Theodor Recht und Verfassung der alten Sachen, Aalen 168 (Nachdruck d. Ausg. Breslau 187)


HECK, Philip Pfleghafte und Grafschaftsbauern in Ostfalen, Tübingen 116


HECK, Philipp Der Sachsenspiegel und die Stände der Freien. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Stände im Mittelalter II, Aalen 164 (Nachdruck d. Ausg. Halle 105)


HECK, Philipp Blut und Stand im altsächsischen Rechte und im Sachsenspiegel, Tübingen 15


HERKOMMER, Hubert Eike von Repgows „Sachsenspiegel“ und die „Sächsische Weltchronik“. Prolegomena zur Bestimmung des Sächsischen Weltchronisten, in Jb. d. Vereins f. niederdeutsche Sprachforschung 100 (177), S. 7-4


HOMEYER, Gustav Die deutschen Rechtsbücher des Mittelalters und ihre Handschriften, neu bearbeitet von Conrad BORCHLING, Karl August ECKHARDT und Julius von GIERKE, Weimar 14


KOLB, Herbert Über den Ursprung der Freiheit. Eine Quaestio im Sachsenspiegel, in ZfdA 10 (174), S. 8-11


KROESCHELL, Karl (Hg.) Studien zum frühen und mittelalterlichen deutschen Recht, Berlin 15


KROESCHELL, Karl Von der Gewohnheit zum Recht. Der Sachsenspiegel im späten Mittelalter, in Recht und Verfassung im Übergang vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit (18), S. 68-


LANDWEHR, Götz Gogericht und Rügegericht, in ZRG GA 8 (166), S. 17-14


LAUFS, Adolf Deutsches Recht im Mittelalter. Der Sachsenspiegel, in Rechtsentwicklung in Deutschland, hrsg. von Adolf LAUFS, Berlin u.a. 16, S. 1-0


LÜCK, Heiner Über den Sachsenspiegel. Entstehung, Inhalt und Wirkung des Rechtsbuches, Halle/Saale 1


MEISTER, Eckhard Ostfälische Gerichtsverfassung im Mittelalter, Stuttgart 11


MITTEIS, Heinrich Lehnrecht und Staatsgewalt. Untersuchungen zur mittelalterlichen Verfassungsgeschichte, Darmstadt 158 (Nachdruck d. Ausg. Berlin 1)


MOLITOR, Erich Der Gedankengang des Sachsenspiegels, in ZRG GA 65 (147), S. 15-6


MOLITOR, Erich Die Pfleghaften des Sachsenspiegels und das Siedlungsrecht im sächsischen Stammesgebiet, Weimar 141


MOLITOR, Erich Pfleghafte, in ZRG GA (111), S. 0-


MOLITOR, Erich Ständerechtsverhältnisse als Geschichtsquelle, in HZ 170 (150), S. -


PARK, Heung-Sik Die Stände des Lex Saxonum, in Concilium medii aevi (1), S. 17-10


SCHMIDT-WIEGAND, Ruth (Hg.) Der Sachsenspiegel als Buch, Frankfurt/Main u.a. 11


SCHRÖDER, Richard Die Gerichtsverfassung des Sachsenspiegels, in ZRG GA 5 (1884), S. 1-101


SCHRÖDER, Richard Zur Kunde des Sachsenspiegels, in ZRG GA (1888), S.5-6


STOBBE, Otto Die Stände des Sachsenspiegels, in Zeitschrift für deutsches Recht und deutsche Rechtswissenschaft 15 (1855), 11-6


STÜVE, Johann Karl Bertram Untersuchungen über die Gogerichte in Westfalen und Niedersachsen, Osnabrück 17 (Nachdruck d. Ausg. Jena 1870)


ZALLINGER, Otto von Die Schöffenbarfreien des Sachsenspiegels, Innsbruck 1887


Please note that this sample paper on „Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on „Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on „Friheit abir, die is drierhande…“.Zur landrechtlich-sozialen Hierarchiein der Darstellung des Sachsenspiegels will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Tuesday, March 27, 2012

out out

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on out out. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality out out paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in out out, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your out out paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



“Out, Out-- Out, Out-- by Robert Frost is a poem about a young boy who dies as a result of cutting his hand using a saw. In order to give the reader a clear picture of this bizarre scenario, Frost utilizes imagery, personification, blank verse, and variation in sentence length to display various feelings and perceptions throughout the poem. Frost also makes a reference to Macbeths speech in the play by Shakespear called Macbeth which is somewhat parallel to the occurrences in Out, Out-. Frost begins the poem by describing a young boy cutting some wood using a buzz-saw. The setting is Vermont and the time is late afternoon. The sun is setting and the boys sister calls he and the other workers to come for Supper. As the boy hears its dinnertime, he gets excited and cuts his hand on accident. Immediately realizing that the doctor might amputate his hand, he asks his sister to make sure that it does not happen. By the time the doctor arrives, it is too late and the boys hand is already lost. When the doctor gives him anaesthetic, he falls asleep and never wakes up again. The last sentence of the poem, since they (the boys family and the doctor) were not the one dead, turned to their affairs shows how although the boys death is tragic, people move on with their life in a way conveying the idea that people only care for themselves. Frost uses different stylistic devices throughout this poem. He is very descriptive using things such as imagery and personification to express his intentions in the poem. Frost uses imagery when he describes the setting of the place. He tells his readers the boy is standing outside by describing the visible mountain ranges and sets the time of day by saying that the sun is setting. Frost gives his readers an image of the boy feeling pain by using contradicting words such as rueful and laugh and by using powerful words such as outcry. He also describes the blood coming from the boys hand as life that is spilling. To show how the boy is dying, Frost gives his readers an image of the boy breathing shallowly by saying that he is puffing his lips out with his breath. When talking about the saw, Frost uses personification and repetition. Personification is seen when he says that at times it can run light and at others it has to bear a load, talking as if the saw was a person which had to carry something. Repetition is used to help build an image of the saws movements where the words snarled and rattled are repeated several times throughout the poem to display an image of the saw moving back and forth. Frosts variation in the lengths of his sentences almost reflect the boys life for when the boy is still alive and healthy, the lengths of Frosts sentences are much longer then they are when the boy is dying. The poems title, Out, Out- is taken from the Shakespeare play Macbeth where the main character, Macbeth, speaks after he is told that his wife is dead. Using a simile to compare Lady Macbeths death to a candle which is blown out he says Out, out, brief candle! Both Lady Macbeths death and the death of the young boy from Frosts poem are tragedies. They are both about people whos lives come to an end before it is their time to die, before theyve lived a long life and aged to die a natural death. Comparing them to a candle is suitable because just like a candles light can go in a matter of seconds caused by a simple blow, their lives ended in a matter of seconds. A candle that leaves darkness once it is not shining any longer, can be compared to the darkness left in the hearts of the families of Lady Macbeth and of the boy after their death. Saying brief candle clearly compares to the boy, who dies before he even gets the chance to reach manhood. Another comparison that can be made between Lady Macbeth and the boy, is the way that after their deaths, their surroundings move on and go back to their regular routine. In Macbeth, Macbeth continues his fight for the kingdom, and in Out, Out- the doctor and the boys family get back to their affairs. This helps prove Macbeths words when he says Lifes but a walking shadow, a poor player; That struts and frets his hour upon the stage; And then is heard no more it is a tale; Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury; Signifying nothing., because he is saying that life is brief and meaningless. The boys quick death shows how life can be short and the way in which everyone got back to their own businesses shows how life is meaningless, how when one is gone it does not make that much of a difference. Its Frosts style of writing that makes his readers feel as if they are part of the poem. Its almost as if the events in the poem are really taking place and the readers are merely people who are standing by and watching it all. It is his writing which allows him to make an allusion between the story of a tragic boy and the story of a tragic hero. It is his writing which makes his poems so unique. Word Count 1





Please note that this sample paper on out out is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on out out, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on out out will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



Iago (Victim or Villain) English Essay


Iago takes the position below lieutenant. And to many people he is the most evil character in shakespears plays, not for his treachery, which Macbeth is worse for, but the way in which he manages to get all the people that trust him to do as he wishes. Such as the way he uses people to kill Cassio, Kill Othello and to make people believe Desdemona isn’t as pure as they think. He does this by taking using their trust and their own motivations. Roderigos desire for Desdemona, Cassios desire to take his place as lieutenant once again and also the characters weaknesses such as Othellos pride, and the way in which Cassio acts when he is drunk, to achieve what he wants.


Although Iago kills Roderigo when he stabs him, he does the most damage by using the other characters wants to achieve his own goal which in turn makes Cassio first lose his position, then make Desdemona beg Othello for Cassio to have his position back which allows Iago to suggest to Othello Desdemonas cheating and later to drive Roderigo into killing Cassio.


Iagos character is complex, but in Act I, Scene I, where he describes his anger at not being made lieutenant by Othello, the main motivations for Iagos ways are revenge and anger; he has revenge for Cassio replacing him, and also anger that Othello gave Cassio the promotion instead of him. So it is obvious that Iagos manipulations are due to a basic desire to get his own back on those who hurt him, and to have what he wants, Iagos suggestion that Cassio and Desdemona are having an affair gets Othello to trust Iago and the position as his lieutenant in Act III, Scene III.


Do my essay on Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation CHEAP !




Being made lieutenant by Othello only satisfies his pride, he continues with his plan to discredit Desdemona and this shows that it is not enough for Iago to have what he believes is his, and he must do something to Othello for not giving him the job as lieutenant in the first place, by making Othello believe that Desdemona has had an affair and destroy her...


Iago is hardheaded. We see this in the way he uses this opportunity to hurt Cassio and Othello. When Iago realizes Cassio is fond of Desdemona, he immediately makes a plan to use this to make Othello suspect they are having an affair.


Although Iago appears to want Othello and Cassio to feel misery, he does not appear to have a specific plan that he has thought out, he continually uses insights he makes about Cassio, Othello, Roderigo and Desdemona to help his plan in his asides.


Iagos hard-headedness is also evident in his use of Roderigo. He uses this wealthy Venetian for money by promising to give the gifts he receives to Desdemona; he instead keeps them for his own purposes.


When Roderigo suspects this in Act V, he plots to have Roderigo kill Cassio because if Cassio wins, he also wins by having Roderigo killed in the process. In the end this part of the plan fails, so Iago kills Roderigo himself.


Iago is cunning when things get very hard, he nearly gets away with his plan; Othello kills Desdemona, he is made lieutenant, but Cassio even though he was wounded in the attack in Act V, lives and Iago is caught and exposed.


Iago’s weakness would be his wife Emilia, who although she receives threats and orders from Iago, revealed Iagos treachery by saying that Desdemona is innocent and explains how she found Desdemonas handkerchief, and how she passed it on to Iago... For this Iago shows ruthlessness by killing Emilia and running away, but is then later caught.


Iago appears to be using everyone elses weaknesses to his advantage, Iago does indeed have his own weaknesses, and this shows that no man is free from weaknesses.


Iago shows his weaknesses by his need to be made lieutenant, which reveals his own desire to reach a status he seems to need to be comfortable.


In Act II, Scene I, when Iago shows that he suspects Othello is having an affair with his wife as an incentive for manipulating Othello, he again shows his weakness, one which he uses with Othello against Desdemona.


Iagos great misjudgement is in his own wife. She stands up to him to defend Desdemona despite all the risks, unravelling Iagos manipulative web.


At the end of the play, Iago shows his difference from many of Shakespeares villains in that he is still alive. Most villains in Shakespeares plays die by being killed by those they done bad to in a theme of restoration of order. Iago on the other hand does not die; we can only guess that his future will be miserable...





Please note that this sample paper on Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Shakespeares Othello- Iago analysation will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



How do write an essay



Do my essay for me certainly is the scholar's nearly all well-known expression on the eve associated with assignment timeline. In order to avoid disappointment attending school or even university, college students inquire an individual to write the actual works for the children. This method is quite common along with gives income with a type of on-line organizations. Actually, college students apply to best composing papers businesses to enable them to look for a pre-written dissertation or to modify the required a single. It appears in their mind much easier receiving the papers set rather than investing difficulty sleeping on needless dissertation composing problems.



Do my essay for me sounds like the phone call pertaining to save, indeed, as opposed to a great educational workout. College students keep on thinking who will create dissertation personally. American business people alongside the scholars, as well as creators along with inspirational speakers result in comfortable circumstances. One as soon as explained, “Do my essay for me!” These types of test is genuinely appropriate in order to anybody who finds herself in comfortable instances. Nevertheless, you will find the actual dissertation composing companies that could solve your current troubles along with you inside the best approach.



The case is well-known using everyone. Actually, the majority of today’s junior result in this not so likeable situation, wherever these people discover his or her composing jobs as the extremely nasty difficulties. It can be frustrating pertaining to college student never to attain function you require associated with them over time.



In other instances, working college students, for instance, simply absence time for you to complete some jobs; that could be exactly why they like the actual composing businesses, indeed. In spite of some claims how a customized dissertation composing businesses possess deceitful persona associated with working out, the volume of composing businesses or even sole freelance worker freelance writers, nevertheless, will not lessen using years drastically. Quite contrary, how much the experienced businesses that could fulfill do my essay for me! need improves on the net fairly quickly. As soon as college student demands ‘write my personal essay’, they must be conscious using the truth the duty to your selecting of your educational companies is of only absolutely free themes concern. Your paper’s good quality can be the most ghost writers only. Consequently, select companies very carefully.

Monday, March 26, 2012

Women in the American Revolution

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Women in the American Revolution. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Women in the American Revolution paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Women in the American Revolution, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Women in the American Revolution paper at affordable prices with cheap essay writing service!



The Constitution was written that said that all men were created equal. However, many American women wanted to have the rights and freedoms as men did. But women were totally dependent on men for everything. When the revolution began many women began to help support the cause of the revolution. In doing so woman began to found the first large-scale woman’s association in American history. That showed sprit and support for their loved ones in the fight for freedom. Some women were disapproving of this act, although many women worked hard in collecting money because the hard currency was sacra in America. They printed articles in the newspaper for support of the revolution and went from house to house collecting money along with any contributions that could be given. The action was a success however many woman had to work hard and not work on common things as most woman would have in that time period, such as hair, clothes, and elaborate vain work. Many were obligated to give in the efforts of the war and had to sell and give things to make up for the coast of the war. So many were impressed with the efforts along with George Washington, however, he had a different view on the money should be spent while the ladies wanted the clothe their family. After seeing what the use of clothes would do for the men he later gave in to the plan to have the men clothed. This was a huge step in history for woman’s rights it showed the patriotism of America women along with a great contubiton.


Please note that this sample paper on Women in the American Revolution is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Women in the American Revolution, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Women in the American Revolution will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from cheap essay writing service and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!