Thursday, March 15, 2012

ROBOTS AND BEYOND

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ROBOTS AND BEYOND


--- Exploring AI of Robots


A “machine” is any physical system. Human beings are sort of extraordinary complex, self-controller physical machine. Obviously, humans are conscious. The question is the chance that the robot can be intelligent and conscious? What kind of machine can be conscious? How to create a robot to be conscious and intelligent? The most efficient and advanced technology is the young field so-called Artificial Intelligence (AI). It is the most brilliant solution to “build” a “brain” for the robot to make robot to be intelligent and conscious. The most valuable asset of a robot is making it smart and conscious like humans.


The evolutionary robotics is an efficient technology to develop a simple robot to be intelligent and conscious. It is developed by AI technology. The evolutionary robotics systems in the 180s was predicated on the idea that intelligent robot could do what human experts could do. (Rethinking of AI). This system can be used to capture the process in design and decision making by robot itself. At the same time, evolutionary robotics techniques began to reach a maturity with which it could be applied to represent complex and real world problems like those arising in medicine.


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For half a century since the robot came into existence in society, the goal of developing intelligent robot has become a central purpose in AI field. Over the same time period, both processing and storage capacity of robotic systems have increased. The next few decades robot may have a rapid progress in AI field. It has the sufficient power in society, and it is an important part of the society


For the first time in the society, AI is solely responsible for the creation, evolution and implementation of a rudimentary robot. The intelligent robot is a new development of AI. In robotics system, each encoding of the robotic control system is randomly created and put into the particular environment. An intelligent robot can do limited behaviors such as walk, watch, and talk according to its specified system controller. Robot’s performances on various tasks are automatically evaluated.


Robot’s functionalities are used to measure robot’s abilities to perform desire tasks. The role of AI is limited to the specification of the number of functionalities. Since human started using tools, AI technology has shaped human’s life. The development of AI field is drastic. Since human started using tools, AI technology has shaped human’s life. Intelligent robots have applied in different areas, such as in industry, agriculture, military affairs, and medicine.


AI will improve the social structure of human. Advancing AI technology has changed human’s life and transformed how human conduct the entire society. For example, in the United State the application in AI techniques, the intelligent robots greatly effect to medical decision making. It has grown out of a Symposium on AI in Medicine presented at the 17 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of intelligent robots. (AI in Medicine). The AI in Medicine (AIM) field emerged in the early 170s in response to several simultaneous needs, opportunities and interests. An increased demand for high-quality medical services coupled with the explosive growth of medical knowledge has led to the suggestion that robots could be used to assist physicians and other health care providers in discharging their clinical roles in diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. At the same time, evolutionary robotics techniques, especially those of the AI field, began to reach a maturity with which they could be applied to representing and reasoning about complex, real world problems like those arising in medicine.


The AI robots play important characters in the entertainment community. For example, the Disney Company uses AI technology in many areas. The movie 101 Dalmations and The Lion King, used the AI software-aided animation. AI is used to make entertainment much more interactive and tailored towards the interests of individuals (Rethinking of AI). Human follows the development of AI, and AI helps to crate a new path for human to connect with the physical world, advanced technology, and robot. Developers from Microsoft, Netscape, General Electric and Disney explore numerous experiments of robots which are enabled to be intelligent and conscious. AI research has developed new ways of building an intelligent and sentient robot. Today’s AI technology has reached the stage where more natural and familiar modes of communication will soon make the robot being conscious. Evolutionary robotics system can be used to capture much of the process involved in design and decision making by robot itself. The additional information about robot’s mind, alternatives considered and rejected, and the expertise underlying the result is an enormously valuable affect. Therefore, the most valuable asset of a robot is making it smart and conscious like real human.


The intelligent robot will play an important role in the future of information access. The rise of rule-based evolutionary robotics systems in the 180s was predicated on the idea that intelligent robot could do what human experts could do. (Rethinking of AI). Today, the emphasis is not on doing what people do. Instead, the emphasis is on exploiting opportunities of the intelligent robot to do tasks that people cannot do. For example, in a quite dangerous environment for humans, the intelligent robot is designed to remove radioactive road from a nuclear reactor in a safe manner. For instance, the World Wide Web has provided access to so much knowledge, people need help from robot in organizing increasingly tedious personal information libraries. To provide that help, the creators of aggregation tools must take advantage of intelligent robot work in the area of knowledge representation. However, knowledge representation is not used to mimic human reasoning, but to provide a robust and extensible source with which the user can be accessed. Therefore, intelligent robot needs to make decision and organize information in order to provide user’s accurate knowledge.(Rethinking of AI). As matter of fact, intelligent robot makes it possible for organizations to make better decisions. Hence, robot can help save large amounts of money in the world of complex information system and expensive resource allocation. In addition, intelligent robot plays a significant role in a specific operating system.


Evolutionary robotics technology is progressing and the development of intelligent robot enhanced by AI technology. However, during the 80s, AI experts developed systems for solving problems ranging from chemical-plant optimization to oil-well log analysis. Some of these systems were spectacular successes, with payback measured in hours. But in spite of such early successes, Esther Dyson, editor of the influential trade publication Release 1.0, predicted that intelligent robot would not become truly important commercially until robot became embedded in main-stream, strategically important systems like raisins in a loaf of raisin bread. (Rethinking of AI). Time has proven Dysons prediction correct. In the 0s, AI, as a field, is becoming more important as emphasis shifts away from replacing expensive human experts with stand-alone expert systems toward main-stream robotic systems that create strategic advantage. In reality, AI has applied to work in such industries as defense, transportation, manufacturing, and entertainment.


There are some different kinds of intelligent robots being built, such as Sony’s new toy, a robot that is able to sing, dance and talk. There is another humanoid intelligent robot with proper legs, like Honda’s asimo. The robot can walk ok, but has been designed to fall without breaking. Furthermore, another interesting feature is the ability to recognize faces, which admittedly is a hot topic in nowadays, but definitely a cool feature. Everyone in these days is saying that Artificial Intelligent technology has developed the intelligent robot. However, the question is did robot itself can grow intelligence on its own after some sets of mathematical equations have been programmed. It should be just like a newborn child who initially to get attention waves his hands in haphazard way and slowly it is his mind, which is learning. For this case, let the robot move around and hit the wall, it is just like a child learning to walk, he falls gets up and again walks. For example, the user tells the robot that hitting the all is not a good thing, which is the only input human give to train the intelligent robot. If people train the robot in that manner, can the robot be called conscious? On the other words, whether or not the intelligent robot has its mind to understand and learn. Those are the questions that AI researchers will explore in the future. It is feasible that intelligent robot itself is capable to achieve this purpose by the development of AI technology.


(Robot Rights) The most concerned subject of AI is about robots being conscious and having rights. AI technology is advanced and explaining many things. By the developing AI technology, many advanced robots have been built, such like Kismet and Cog, which imply that by applying AI technology, people will one day build conscious robots. Once consciousness didn’t seem so special anymore, humans seemed less exalted, less like some special species for whom the existence of the universe was meant. That eventually leads to highest developing of AI technology. On the other hand, people will see a debate on whether or not machines will have rights, and whether or not robots are “alive”. Generally, in nowadays, the main people speak out against it, because it is detrimental to man’s special place in the universe. However, consciousness might be implemented into an intelligent robot when AI is advanced enough to achieve this goal. Once the robots become a species equivalent to human being, they might able to learn from input to compile personality that people consider the characteristics of intelligent life. (Artificial Life Warehourse). Hence, the robots might have their own rights to accomplish and control their behaviors. The intelligent robots will have to built and taught over many years, therefore, it will probably have its own rights in the future.


People actually witness intelligent robots involving to society continuously. In addition, people assume that the robots are concrete and have become one part of the entire society. The existence of robots in the society is getting significant and more important.


Consciousness can be a database that gives robot guidelines as to decide what to do and how to do. For instance, there is a very specific task for the robot. If a man asks a cup of tea, a robot wouldn’t need emotions to do that. However, if the robot were not to cooperate with this man, it would reject the request with the various possible memories of its own willing behaviors. Furthermore, intelligent aspect of robot’s consciousness fixed concepts, which help robot itself to make the right decision as an individual intelligent being. With an intelligent robot in a society, conscious are definitely needed. It indeed helps create a conscious robot to solve problems in the society and answer questions related to people’s life.


(TuringTest) In some circumstance, consciousness is necessary for a robot to do certain tasks. However, talking about an intelligent robot response as not being optimal, if conscious play a part in the construction of that response, it’s true that the response may not be optimal, but if the robot always did the optimal things, it wouldn’t seem as real or life-like. Humans are intelligent, yet we do stupid (not optimal) things over conscious like love, hate, jealousy etc. If an intelligent robot form always did the optimal thing, then it wouldn’t appear to be conscious, it would only act like a simple machine. There is a perfect example why robots with conscious would function better so-called Turing test. The test typically involves two teletypes in one room. One of the teletype is connected to a person, while the other is connected to a robot. A judge then types questions to both participants, and after a while, he has to decide which is the robot and which is the real person. If chooses incorrectly, or can’t decide, then the robot is considered to be sentient. Of course, the robot is attempted to lie in order to convince the judge that it is human. It implies that the robot had ability to make itself answer questions incorrectly as same as human being. Consciousness is a pioneering of achieving the intelligent robot’s behaviors. It is the key for AI technology development as well.


Robots are no longer science fiction metaphors or wish-fulfillment fantasies. According to the United Nation’s World Robotics 001 survey, there are at least 750,000 units in operation around the world building cars, vacuuming floors, and mowing lawns. In Flesh and Machines How Robots Will Change Us, Rodney Brooks, director of he AI Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and probably the single most influential roboticist in the world, argues that the robots are about to come to real life. “Today there is a clear distinction in most people’s minds between the robots of science fiction and the machines in their daily lives,” he writes. “Our fantasy machines have … emotions, desires, fears, loves, and pride. Our real machines do not. Or so it seems at the dawn of the third millennium. But how will it look a hundred years from now? My thesis is that in just twenty yars the boundary between fantasy and reality will be rent asunder.” ( Robots are Us The Mystical Side of Science (and Fiction), Jeremy Smith, AlterNet).


In the real future, AI technology will continuously develop robots as metal buckets into being intelligent and conscious. The creation of an intelligent, feeling humanoid robot represents the final victory of AI field. However, the research will yield technologies that will alter the relationship between human and robots. There actually will be no need to worry about mere robots taking over from humans. The distinction between humans and robots is going to disappear.


(Prosperity) In the field of twentieth century AI, the intelligent robot that most resonates with human’s needs, is naturally created by human’s image. In the future, the dreams of AI is made of robots have their own consciousness, hence, the intelligent robots made by advanced AI technology will receive the soul of humankind. Since the middle of 0th century, the robotic labor has meant greater profits in many field, such as in industry, medicine, military, education, agriculture etc. The robot takeover is subtler and more beneficial than humans. It presents a new era of prosperity in AI field. In the past, humanity faced the universe alone and without a friend. Now the new creatures, intelligent robots join society. They are stronger, more faithful, more useful, and absolutely devoted to the society. Moreover, robots will be conscious and better breed than humans in the future.


(Influence of AI) AI creates intelligent robots and brings robots to life. At the beginning of 1st century, this is the myth that defines human’s relationship to the robots. Since robots are becoming more conscious, the constructs do not mimic humans. Instead, they actually are, in many ways, human already. After hundreds of years, someday, a human might shoot a robot and see it bleed. When the robot shot back, the human would gush smoke. It would be a great moment of achievement in AI. In nowadays, PCs and PDAs are ubiquitous and linked together by the World Wide Web. Similarly, the intelligent robots will be an important part of human’s life. People talk and work with robots, and robots help people, take care of humans. Ideally, after centuries of distrust, people have learned to love the intelligent robots. In popular, mainstream films such as Terminator II, the Matrix, and Bicentennial Man, people even embrace the intelligent robot as a path to expanded consciousness.


(Future) In the automated economy, people may not know what to do with themselves. In such future, the transcendence offered by the robots would be an escape from terrible reality, not a gateway to long life and higher consciousness. In the future, there will be many possible responses to AI technological change. The entire environment is knitting human and robot’s consciousness that cover the whole world. Maybe someday people will ask, “Will I have my own robot simply like having a car?” As matter of fact, the robot extends and gives new meaning to human’s life. Time will tell that AI technology is developing and the future of intelligent robot is what human make it.


(Design Robot StructureThe robot itself has own structure. The robot learn about things is based on its programmed structure. It is the first important step of the process to design adequate “brain” structure to the robot. The structure includes the behaviors controller, language of thoughts, and even consciousness. This design applies to a complete intelligent robot. (The Well-Designed Child, John McCarthy, Standford University).


(ROBOT Consciousness) Generally, the single most defining characteristic that separates man from machine is consciousness. Most philosophers propose consciousness as a very specialized, subjective experience that can only exist in the complex and biological system of the brain. But with recent advanced in AI technology, some philosophers, such as Gilbert Ryles and other strict materialist who don’t believe in the immaterial mind or soul, have begun arguing that in fact some robots can “think” in a manner similar to humans. (Conscious Automata, Brain Cutcliffe) It seems apparent that the idea of a conscious robot may not be so far from now. However, the public has doubted in new AI technology and mistrust the very nature of what robot means to be conscious.


For example, the film of Terminator, and Terminator play on the theme of resistance to control. The robot achieves self awareness spontaneously. Once the robot possessed its own will, it begins to act out the purpose for which it was created and launches expected behaviors. For this case, the robot was trying to make decision on its own and attempted to develop its own will. Therefore, the robot actually achieves consciousness on its own. In the future, human will become so dependent on the intelligent robot.


(Relationship with robot ). However, the new relationship between man and robot is getting complicated since the robot becomes conscious. The robots are feeling thinking beings and attempt to rebel against humans. But not all exploited robots rebel. The fact is that man may create robots, but the robots they create have power. The robots have power to change people’s life. Since the robots are becoming conscious, the very nature of consciousness with its desire to live and will of its own decision lead to conflict with humans. (Conscious Automata, Brain Cutcliffe)


(Createion of Robot) Many AI researchers use AI technology to form control programs for robots in order to help robots to “learn” the best way to complete a task based on experience. Typically, researchers generate hundreds of variations of control program to see how the robots perform on the task. Crucially, small changes in the control program leads to the robot’s better performance. A team of scientists led by Dr. Phil Husbands at the University of Sussex has found a way to mimic the working of NO in the neural networks they are evolving to create control programs for robots. Often, it takes many thousands of generations to create control programs that do a good job of completing the task given to a robot. Then, the control programs have been human)used to create control system for an intelligent robot. (Robot brain become more


(Exploring in AI, Mind) Robot does things, which human can’t. Recent decades have produced a blossoming of research in AI that exhibit important properties of mind. One of the researches is on famous MIT robots such as Cog, a robot designed to translate its environment through sensors---both visual and tactile. It illustrated that robots can be humanoid and efficient. In many ways, people can’t do something, which robots actually can do. For example, human beings wouldn’t have the ability to read each other’s fingerprints or irises to confirm identification. In contrast, the intelligent robots can instantly process the complex network of patterns and determine if one matches another. One key area where robots are making a difference to the quality of human life is in haptic technology. It allows robots to simulate a sense of touch. Robots also can go where atmospheric conditions or terrain make it difficult to human beings to do research. The very good example is the explore advances in underwater robotics. ( Exploring AI at MIT, Robot and Beyond)


(KISMET, MIT)Another achievement of AI research in MIT is the robot called Kismet. Kismet is a sociable robot. Most current robots are programmed to be very good at specific task. Kismet was structured as a real person. It physical features includes big blue eyes, lips, ears and eyebrows. The eyes, in particular, are actually sensors that allow the robot to glen information from its environment, such as whether something is being jiggled next to its face. Kismet can then respond to it, such as moving its head back if an object comes too close, or communicating a number of emotions, (such as happiness, fear and disgust). A human wears a microphone to talk to the robot, which also has microphones in its ears. Dr. Cynthia Breazeal, a postdoctoral associate at MIT’s AI Laboratory and the leader of the Kismet team. She said, “The intelligent features, behavior and “emotions” work together so it can “interact with humans in an intuitive, natural way,” For Kismet, Dr.Breazeal noted, “ I think people are often afraid that AI technology is making us less human. Kismet is a counterpoint to that it really celebrates our humanity. This is a robot that thrives on social interactions.” To make Kismet as lifelike as possible, Dr. Breazeal and colleagues have been exploring how Kismet interacts with people who aren’t familiar with. The results are encouraging. For example, many of people who’ve met Kismet have told Dr. Breazeal that the robot has a real presence. “It seems to really impact them on an emotional lever, to the point where they tell me that when I turn Kismet off, it’s really jarring. That’s powerful. It means that I’ve really captured something in this robot that’s special. This kind of reaction is also critical to the robot’s design and purpose.” Kismet is continually evolving with new sensors and software. Dr. Breazeal said, “It’s not like we can develop one more learning algorithm and say we’re done. We’re trying to develop the first robotic creature that takes an active interest in its world and learns and develops over times, becoming more and more capable.”


Work Cited


Cutcliffe,Brain. “Conscious Automata.” 4 May.00 http//smallwonder.hispeed.com/MindsSouls/ConsciousAutomata.html


“Kismet.” MIT on the Web. 4 May.00 http//www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics group/kismet/kismet.html


McCarthy, John. “ The Well-Designed Child.” Stanford University, Tue Jul 7,1.


“Robots and Beyond Exploring AI at MIT.” MIT Museum on the Web. 4 May. 00. http//web.mit.edu/museum/exhibitions/robots.html


Smith, Jeremy. “Robots Are Us The Mystical Side of Science.” AlterNet, April 1, 00.


Szolovits, Peter. “AI in Medicine.” AAAS on the Web. June, 18. Cambridge, Mass.January 000. May,00http//medg.lcs.mit.edu/ftp/psz/AIM8/ch0.html


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