Saturday, March 31, 2012


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Anatomy & Physiology 1 04/10/0

Body regions



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Each region has a bony skeleton attached. Which will have muscle attachment, which permits movement.

Body cavities

1. Dorsal cavity-

Framework Cranium, vertebrae

Contents � brain, spinal cord

. Thoracic cavity-

Framework ribs, sternum, thoracic vertebrae, diaphragm

Contents heart, lungs, pleura, thymus, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, major vesicles

. Abdominal cavity-

Framework diaphragm, lumbar vertebrae, abdominal muscle.

Contents stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, spleen, aorta, venacavias

4. Pelvic cavity- framework pelvic bones, sacrum, and abdominal muscles. Contents Kidneys, bladder, ovaries, uterus, vagina, testicles not dropped, colon, rectum, anus

Structural units of the body

Cell � the smallest functional unit of the body

Tissue - Collection of cells having similar functions and structure

Organ - Collection of tissues having similar functions and structure

Systems- group of organs having similar functions and structure

Organism � collection of systems, which work together to sustain the independent functioning of the total individual

About the cell

Protoplasum- living substance within the cell. Can be organic or inorganic

Organic materials- chemicals made of carbon. Example protein, fats, carbohydrates

Inorganic materials- chemicals other than carbon. Example water, salts, gases

Electrolytes- salt compounds

Ion’s- electrolytes that have been separated in a solution. Carry an electrical charge

Nucleus- control center of the cell. Contains chromosomes

Chromosomes- Made of DNA. Contains the hereditary traits

Nucleolus- pacemaker of the cell

Cytoplasm - contests of the cell other than the nucleolus. Manufactures RNA and other proteins

Organelle- small structures in the cytoplasm that carries on a specific function

Types of Mitochondria � powerhouse Produces energy and ATP

Endoplasmic reticulum- produces and transports RNA and sterile hormone Ribosomes- produces RNA and other proteins

Golgi apparatus- manufactures glandurol secretions

Centrioles- per cell. Located near the nucleus and active during cell division

Enclusion bodies

Lysosomes- granules containing digestive enzymes

Pigments- melanin (black), hemoglobin (red), bill Rubin (yellow)

Glycogen- starch molicus. Found in liver and muscle cells

Lipids- fat globules

Mucus- sticky substance, protects the passages of the body that open to the outside

Cell membrane Also called plasma membrane. Its function is selective permeability (only allow certain things in the cell and out of the cell) composed of organic molecules that constantly change shape and chemically interact with other molecules.


Cellular Physiology � methods of moving substances through the cell membrane

Diffusion- movement of a substance through the cell membrane in either direction depending on the concentration of that substance on each side of the membrane. The movement occurs from the side of higher concentration towards the side of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached. Example oxygen, carbon dioxide

Osmosis- (selective diffusion) solution involved is water. The salute involved is glucose or salts. Allows movement from a region of low salute to a region of high salute through a membrane. Permeable only to water.

Osmotic pressure will result from a difference in concentration on either side of the membrane.

Isotonic � equal osmotic pressure

Hypertonic- intercellular pressure (outside cell) is greater than intracellular. CELL WILL SHRINK AND DRAW FLUID OUT.

Hypotonic- Intracellular pressure is greater than intercellular. CELL WILL SWELL AND BURST

Active transport- substances are moved through a membrane from a low concentration to a high concentration. Requires energy to perform the process. Example electrolytes balances

Filtration- processes that pushes water and substances from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure through a membrane. Responsible for the fluid between the cells. Blood pressure causes this process. How the kidney works

Sodium (NA++) and potassium(K) pump- movement of sodium and potassium enzymes from a low concentration to a high concentration. This requires energy. VERY IMPORTANT in maintaining osmotic pressure.

Bulk transport-

Phagocytosis. Cell membrane surrounds an external particle and encloses it within a vacuole and the enzymes from the lysosomes digest it.

Pinalcytosis- similar to phagocytosis except it intakes liquids. Cellular physiology



Char 1) covers all body surfaces

) mostly cellular

) lacks blood vessels

4) protects underlined structures

5) has cells capable of secretions group of these cells are call GLANDS

6) sensitive to sensory stimulation

7) some of the cells are ciliated.

Types 1) Simple squamos- single layer thick, lines internal organs, secretes a cerus fluid and facilitates diffusion and filtration.

) Simple cuboidal - cube shaped, single layer thick. Secretes hormones and is found in the thyroid and ovaries

) Simple columnar- single layer of tall cells, contain goblet cells, which secretes mucus. Found in the lining of the small intestines. Func is absorption and secretion

4) Pseudostratified columnar- hair growing from the cells. Has goblet cells. Found in the nose, trachea, and bronchi. Simulation of the cilia causes coughing and sneezing

5) Stratified squamas- most common type. Several layers of epithelial cells. Can be karentinised or non-karentinised this forms a waterproof protective covering. Found in the epidermis and the interlining of the mouth

6) Stratified columnar � several layers of tall cells. Found in the respitory system and the male reproductive system

7) Transitional � comes from the bladder. Can change shape when pulled or stretched

Connective tissue (CT)-

Char 1) found throughout body

) gives body support as a whole.

) Connects two organs together.

4) Secretes a matrix which is an intercellular substance that fills the spaces between the cells.

5) Encapleates certain organs (kidneys)

6) Has a rich supply of blood vessels.

7) It protects delicate organs with fatty deposits

8) It’s a storehouse for fats.

Types 1) Adipose - fat cells under skin and around body organs, Func reserve food supply, insulation, and shock absorption.

) Areolar � found in subcutaneous tissues, it contains fibrasites which secretes collagen, macrophases which carry out phagocytosis, massed cells which contains histamine causing flamatory process, heparin and plasma cells, the plasma cells contain antibodies.

) White fibers - tendons and ligaments which contains collagen

4) Yellow fibers - elastic fibers found in subcutaneous tissue and gives elasticity to the body.

5) Hyaline Cartilage � hard and smooth, made of collagen. It covers joint surfaces and gives firm but flexible support

6) Fibrous cartilage � flexible and moveable it is found in the nose, ears, trachea and intervertrable disks

7) Blood- aka wandering connective tissue, cells floating matrix. Made in the bone marrow and it distributes nutrients throughout body.

8)Bone � it is made of ostiocytes (bone cells) which secretes a fibrous matrix where the salts of calcium, phosphorous and magnesium are stored. This is what makes the bone hard. Bones provide support and protection for the body.


compact bone- it is very hard, found in shaft of long bones and the outer covering of other bones and it secretes a matrix of concentric circles (rings in a tree)

spongy bone- aka cancelous bone, it contains spaciules which are needle shaped bone fragments and trabeculae which is fibrous cords of ct. This forms a mesh work of bone that fills the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones, this keeps the bones lightweight and strong. It is arranged to absorb shock and stress(webbing)

Periosteum- a fiborous membrane covering outer surface of the bones, it secretes ostioblasts during fracture repair and can increase or decrease in size depending on the activity of the individual.

Epiphysis- growth center of bone. It is found on the ends of long bones and in the center of other bones.

Medulary cavity � red marrow, makes red blood cells granulocytes (group of white blood cells) and platelets(clotting cells) This is found in all bones until maturity and after maturity only on flat irregular bones(ribs) Yellow marrow, this replaces red marrow in long bones. It is composed of ataposed tissue and is a reserve source of energy.

Articular cartilage- made of hyaline cartilage and covers ends of long bones to reduce friction.

Types of bones

1) long bones found in extremities.

) short bones( carpals and tarsals)

) irregular bones(vertebrae)

4) 4 flat bones (ribs, sternum, scapula, skull, pelvis)

Fracture Repair (Osteogenisous)

Stage 1 = Procallus � where hemorrhaging leads to a clot.

Stage = Callus- granulation tissue forms between the pieces of the bone.

Stage = bony callus- periosteum secretes ostoblasts into the callus and secretes a matrix. OSSIFICATION is formed, which is minerals within the matrix that causes bone to harden. Osteoclasts are secreted to reshape the jagged edges of the damaged bone (bone sculpture cells).

Stage 4 = facture healed



1) Coordination center of the body

) Stimulus can only travel in one direction along a nerve

) Nerve fibers join together at a synapse(space)

4) Control center(brain and spinal cord) that is nervous tissue



1) Contracts when stimulated. Func enables movement

) Maintains posture against gravity

) Helps vital body functions (example digestion, heartbeat, and breathing)


1) Skeletal- striated, voluntary controlled, some reflex action, muscles connect to bone by tendons and the attachment crosses for a joint

) Smooth muscle- nonstriated, involuntary controlled, controlled by the ANS(autonomic nervous system), found in digestive organs

) Cardiac tissue- striated, involuntary controlled, fibers are interconnected, when one fiber contracts the contraction is spread to all other fibers. Found only in the heart


Blood- (wandering ct)


Blood volume �

1) Vary according to species, body weight and age

) Maintains the PH of the body within normal ranges, (normal PH of blood = 7.5- 7.45) ) Acts as a transportation system for food, oxygen(O), carbon dioxide (C0), waste products, heat, hormones, enzymes.

4) Protects the body against antigens(anything foreign to the body) does this by carrying antibodies.

Parts of blood

Plasma- liquid portion of the blood that contains clotting factors. Makes up 55% � 65% of the total blood volume. 0% is water, 10% is proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, gases, hormones and enzymes.

Types of protein in plasma

Fibrinogen- made by the liver, requires vitamin K and functions in the clotting process.

Prothrombin- made by the liver, requires vitamin K and functions in the clotting process

Albumin- most prevalent draws fluid from the tissues into the vessels

Globulin- forms, alpha and beta � transports fats and fat soluble vitamins, Gamma- functions as antibodies of immunity (all of these are made from plasma cells, made in the spleen and lymph notes

Serum liquid portion of the blood(doesn’t have clotting factors), draw blood allow blood to clot spine down and liquid portion of the mixture is cerium.

Cells 5% - 45% of the total blood volume.


1) # from 5 � 7 million per cubic mm

) Size vary with species and measures in micro’s and diameters

) Shape(biconcave disk) does not have a nucleus except birds, reptiles and fish

4) HGB (hemoglobin) contains within the red blood cell. Gives the red blood cell it’s color. Loves o. enjoys carbon monoxide more(co),

5) Made in the bone marrow, made in all bones before maturity and only in flat and irregular bones after maturity

6) Function carries oxygen from the lungs to all body parts, carries carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs

7) Life span � 4 months. The spleen will fragment the old cells and save the hemoglobin for the new cells

8)Anemia � causes. To little hemoglobin, to few cells (mainly animals)

Types RBC (red blood cells, aka Erythrocytes)

WBC (White blood cells)

Leukocytes �

1) 5,000 � 10,000 cubic mm but can go as high as 15,000 if the animal is stressed or excited during blood draw.

) Contain a nucleus

) Larger than red blood cells

4) Their spirifical in shape

5)func some produce and carry antibodies, some carry out phagocytosis, some crawl through capillary walls into tissue spaces ( called diaheapedecyst)

Types of white cells

Granularcytes- formed in the bone marrow, cytoplasm contains granuals, nuclear segments as cell ages, life span appx. 1 hours. Twice the size of a red blood cell

A. Neutrophils � most numerous, they number from 60% - 70%, they stay in blood appx. 10 hours, they increase with bacterial infections, attracted to the site of infection by chemotaxois, travel through dyopedicyst, they care out phagocytosis, decrease with viral infections

B. Eosinophils- number from 1% - %, increase with allergic responses and parasitic infections

C. Basophils- number from ½ to 1%, they are occasionally seen with allergies, they secrete heparin which helps prevent blood clotting, secrete histamine which increases blood flow to the tissues

Agranularcytes (nongranularcytes)- formed in the bone marrow and the organ of the lymphatic system. The cytoplasm does not contain granules.

A. Lymphocytes- smallest white blood cell, they will number from 5% � 5%, they increase to the response of viral infections, they carry antibodies on the surface of the cell membrane, the cytoplasm shrinks with age making the cell become mostly nucleus, life span may expand for many years.

B. Monocytes- number from % � 8%, nucleus and cytoplasm contain vacuals, they will increase with chronic infections, they undergo dyopedicyst and phagocytosis, they circulate in the blood appx. 4 hours, live span several weeks to months

Platelets (thrombocytes) � no complete cells, come from a giant cell called MEGAKARYOCYTES, made in the bone marrow, MEGAKARYOCYTES releases cytoplasmic fragments and as the fragments detach an intercirculation the smaller fragments become platelets and as they pass through the vessels of the lungs the larger fragments break down to produce more platelets.

Clotting mechanism Always found in the blood

• Platelets break apart due to rough edges in vessel

• Releasing platelet factors

• Prothrombin --) Ca+ @ platelet factors --) thrombin

• Fibrinogen --) thrombin --) fibrin (clot)

Stationary blood clot = Thrombus

Moving blood clot = embolus




Combination of or more tissues

Covers and lines body cavities

Divides organs into sections


Serous- secretes a thin watery fluid, reduces friction between the organs, joints and enclosed cavities.

Synovial- thick fluid in the joint spaces, reduces friction

Fascia- does not secrete, supports and retains structures and surrounds muscle bundles

Sclera- outer white layer of the eyeball and protects the deeper structures of the eye

Dermaoter- outer covering of the brain and spinal cord, protects the delicate nervous tissue below

Integumentary system (skin)


Epidermis- outer layer of epidermis is dead keratinized cells,

Germinal layer- area under the outer layer, living cells that undergo mitosis, replaces the cells that are continuously lost in the outer layer

Pigment color

Dermis- composed of a fibroelastic CT, considered the true skin, firmly connected to the epidermis and loosely connected to the subcutaneous tissues below, good capillary blood supply

Papilary layer- below the germinal layer, origin of ridges and valleys (example fingerprints)

Reticulary layer � below the papillary layer, made of dense CT and elastic fibers, makes the skin stretch, contains nerve endings

Subcutis- composed of adiposed and lose CT, loosely attaches to the skin and underline tissues and structures, adiposed is good insulation

Glands of the skin-

Sudoriferous (sweat glands) - secretes a watery fluid, contains salts and waste products of metabolism, cools the skin by evaporation, found in pads of feet on dogs and cats,

Sebaceous gland (oil glands) � open into the hair follicles, secretions lubricate the hair and skin, secretion is called SEBUM, if accumulates will cause blackheads or cyst

Anal sacks (scent glands) � () located at 400 and 800 around the anus, secretion has a strong odor,

Tarsal gland � secretes and oily secretion along the edge of the eyelid, prevents tear secretions from overflowing the eyelids

Ceruminous gland- found in the ear canal, secretes and waxy material

Projections from the skin (claws, hoofs, fingernails)

Germinal layer - located and the root of claw or nail, has good supply and contains nerve endings

Hair � follicle originates in the dermis, consists of a bulb(root) and shaft, bulb is buried deep into the hair follicle, each follicle has a tiny muscle attached,

Arrector pili - muscle controlled by the sympathetic nerves, contraction of this muscle causes hair to stand up

Alopecia (hair loss)

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