Friday, April 27, 2012

Shakespeare’s Othello focuses as the downfall of the great general who ultimately kills himself and his wife.

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Othello is to blame, he believes he is the great general which has converted him into a victim jealousy he turns into a shattered man as he believes that D is betraying him.O has no right to kill D as he calls the killing a sacrifice but really of mistakes.O knows his weanesss and that he is jealous in losing and looses temper quick but he cannot help himself. O weaknesses are shown when he depends on the society. In General he was a dirty more,the black ramm this so called specie has made the society feel unsafe and stealing D away from her father.But just because D is his property he has no right to kill her.This black ram was dangerous in the first place he felt insecure with the new relationship,that is why he didn’t trust her. O “trusts I” it is then when O’s insecurity and pride leads him to the killing of D no one is to blame! O is proud and thinks he has justified the killing he thinks he has done good,but not! He has wrong beliefs “Yet she must die, else she‘ll portray more men.He kills the “innocent lover” who has committed both spiritual and physical love for O.Who is yet too late to accept responsibilities .


He is also responsible, because he feels insecure as an outsider and that leads to the bad judge of character.O kills D because of his weakness jealousy he could of prevented Chaos in fact he was warned by his so called seen friend I “beware my lord,of jealousy !” “It is the green eyed monster.” O to weak at this moment as he cannot barr the suffering but he is the fool who blindly leads himself into a trap


However,he is not to totally to blame.Iago is aswell, how he tricks Othello,as he knows Othello’s weaknesses,Iago knows how everyone can be exploted.


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Back in those days women were considered as mens property therefore it is no surprise ,him to be upset, jealous, and aggressive because the “green-eyed-monster” was behind cause of D’s death. This is evident that O relates to his good natures as the tragic hero he is respected in some aspects as he is “worthy” and killed D as he “did not know the true fact an error”


Add little bits of Act scene iii.


The other characters are to blame like Desdemona and Cassio. Desdemona lies to her father,She lies about the handkerchief.She is also sheltered because she doesn’t know much about men,she does not know Othello can be jealous .


Cassio, makes too many mistakes he knows he cannot handle alcohol and loses both respect and his position.He treats women with no respect he laughs about Bianca and treats her as a sex object.He is anxious about his reinstatement so he pressures Desdemona.


Emilia destroys the good relationship between Othello and Desdemona when Emilia gives the handkerchief she therefore deceives Othello and Desdemona this could have been prevented if she wasn’t so simple and if she had only challenged I.


R Thinks he can buy D as a commodity because he is a rich fool but also gullible one who know’s I plan though he does not know he will be the victim.





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Consumerism

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Bruce Dawe uses his poetry as a tool to criticise the consumer driven America and societies with consumer values. He puts forward different ideas about consumerism through use of techniques such as metaphor, parody and colloquial language. This can be seen in particular poems such “Enter without so much as knocking” and “Americanized”.


The poem “Enter without so much as knocking” explores the negative issues of consumerism through the example of one mans life. The poem has a cycle structure, starting with “Blink, blink. HOSTPIAL” to symbolise his birth and ending on “Blink, blink CEMETERY” to symbolise his death. This structure helps to show how he was corrupted over time.


The idea that the young are too naïve and also ‘lucky’ that they have not been exposed to or corrupted by consumerism is presented in the first stanza of childhood. It is achieved through the use of colloquial language, “Hello, hello hello, all you lucky people” blares from the TV as the baby listens. The statement “lucky people” is ironic as Dawe uses satire to suggest that the child really was lucky because of his young age consumerism had not affected him.


The idea that consumerism rules our life is also presented. This is shown through use of imperative voice parodying common street signs such as “NO PARKING” then exaggerating them to “NO BREATHING EXCEPT BY ORDER” in a string of commands ordered in short, sharp sentences. Dawe is alluding to the fact that there is a lack of freedom because of consumerism and the rules that it has placed on society.


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Furthermore, the poem “Americanized” depicts America as a driver of consumerism and that it manipulates other countries to adopt American culture and values. It uses a continuing metaphor of an over protective mother and a powerless son to convey the idea that America is a dominating force in the world. This is shown through the child being referred to as “small” which suggests that he is vulnerable and powerless to the mother, who controls him in various ways from not letting him out to guiding him to the bathroom.


Another idea presented coinciding with the mother and son metaphor is the metaphor that the world is an invalid and America, the mother needs to “help it”. This is shown in the quote “she’s off to nurse an invalid called the world”. This is a notion of American supremacy and the idea that America is forcing its’ culture onto other countries.


Bruce Dawe has effectively used different techniques in his poetry to address issues of consumerism.





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Thursday, April 26, 2012

What was the Most Serious Problem Faced byThe Rump of the Long Parliament?

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After the execution of the King a new form of government was needed and the Rump was the name given to the Parliament who ruled after the execution of the King. Firstly it only consisted of the Member’s of Parliament (MPs) who had agreed to the trial and execution of the King and it was also a small part of an elected party, which gave the Rump some legitimacy. Their position was not strong and in 164 they had many problems, as they had much opposition from most political and religious groups in England and abroad.


Pride’s purge in December 1648 had done far from guarantee the loyalties of Parliament, but instead served only to raise suspicion against the army, through its use of force against them. In spite of this fear of the army, the rump was very dependent upon them for protection both internal and external. Army mutineers led by Levellers uprisings were soon put down by Cromwell, reducing the political threats towards the Parliament. The rump had been left there to make a change. To create a social and legislative reform. The very reasons that had led to a decade of civil war and political dithering half-heartedness were still evident in the Rump however. As soon as the Rump came to power its most obvious threats came from problems abroad.


Disputably the Rump’s biggest threat came from within the United Kingdom. There had been rebellion in Ireland for almost ten years and the Scots had continuously invaded England in the civil wars, both could provide a strong base for Charles II to establish a foothold. Cromwell was sent to stop the rebellion in Ireland in March 164, not arriving until August. This delay may well have been due to his desire to remain in the country for as long as possible, casting a watchful eye over Parliament. Cromwell returned in May of the following year, having put pay to the Irish resistance.





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Slaughter House 5

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According to Mary O’Hare, the people who fight in wars are “just babies”. How does the author support and illustrate this opinion in the narrative portions of Slaughterhouse 5 which deal with the war? By examining several scenes and images discuss Vonnegut’s characterization of the American, German and English soldiers and show how Vonnegut portrays war as childish, and those who fight as children.


I didn’t know that books could be this intriguing, disturbing, enlightening, satirical, and strange all at the same time. This story definitely has a message that is awkwardly strange in a sense that it is a common and blurred message. One of the messages that Vonnegut has through out the book are people who fight in wars are “just babies” as Mary O’Hare says. Mary gets upset with Vonnegut because she believes that he will glorify war in his novel; Vonnegut, however, promises not to do so. Slaughterhouse-Five is a condemnation of war, and Vonneguts decision to dedicate the novel in part to Mary suggests how deeply he agrees with her that the ugly truth about war must be told.


In the following paragraphs I will discuss Vonnegut’s characterization of the German, American, and English soldiers; also how Vonnegut portrays the war as childish.


The soldiers during WWII in all the countries involved, were young men. During the play you realize the innocence of these boys and how the war has made them grow up to fast. Later in the book Werner Gluck a young German guard at the slaughterhouse. Gluck gets his first glimpse of a naked woman along with Billy. Their shared intrigue and interest in the naked female body unites these two men. Reflecting on this the boy is too young for war if he has never seen the opposite sex. Also their young age can unite these men even with their different ideologies. Another of example of the characterization of the Germans is on page 5 “two of the Germans were boys in their early teens.” Billy then describes one of the boys as a blond angel; this again shows how young the men are fighting the war.


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Billy’s encounter with British soldiers is in the P.O.W camp. On page Billy describes the English P.O.Ws as clean and enthusiastic. The Englishmen also had been lifting weights and chinning themselves for years. They were in great shape and were masters of checkers and chess and bridge and many other common games. The Englishmen made war look stylish and reasonable, and fun.


As for the Americans their troops were affected by the war also. Eliot Rosewater A war veteran who occupies the bed near Billy in the mental ward of a veterans hospital. Like Billy, Rosewater is suffering from the aftereffects of war. When young minds are exposed to the horrors of war the mind can not always cope. Billys son, who is a failure and a delinquent at school, though he cleans up his life enough to become a Green Beret in the Vietnam War. Roberts presence in the story during Billys later life helps illustrate the pervasiveness of Billys war trauma. Roberts successful self-reformation from delinquency to discipline (in Vietnam) seems to indicate Vonneguts acceptance of the inevitability of war.


Threw out Slaughterhouse 5 there are many messages to be understood. One of those messages is how war uses “babies” to fight. And the serious after effects of a war on a young mind. In Billy’s case he went crazy from the horrible things he saw in war. Kurt Vonnegut does a great job showing how “babies” were fighting the war. So it goes. Hello, farewell, hello, farewell.





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Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Racism in Black Boy

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Racism in Black Boy


Racism is one of the main themes of Black Boy . Throughout the story we can see how black people lived and suffered , just for being different .


They were treated as animals and humillated by people . They didn’t have rights and had to support the injustices of life at that period of time.


Since little , Richard knew but didn’t understand that white people were different to black people , he thought that they were the same but still knew that white people were more powerful than black people , for example when he said in page ¨ And when a word circulated among the black people of the neighborhood that a black boy had been severy beaten by a white man , I felt that the white man had the right to beat the black boy. Richard refer to the black person as a boy , and to the white person as a man , by this difference we can see that he wasn’t really concerned about the differences between whites and blacks , but he knew in a very innocence way that white men were more powerful than black men.


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As time goes by Richard realizes that many of the hardships of his life , such as poverty , hunger and lack of education , were the results of racial discrimination .


Another example of racism is shown in chapter eight ,when a black man , who was a classmate of Richard’s brother , was killed by whites for visiting a white prostitute . This event made Richard realized how afraid he was of the white terror that could assault him at any time , and so he had to be very careful in whatever he did so that he would not be killed by whites . However black people were always in danger from whites.


One of the main problems that Richard had was that he treated white men as his equals. In chapter nine Richard was beaten with a whiskey bottle by some white boys whom he forgets to called them “ sir.” This also happened in the same chapter when a white man offered him a ride into town but he beated Richard because he forgets to called him “sir” . This clearly show us that white men had the right to beated and killed black people if they wanted to . We can also see that Richard did not want to accept the superiority of white peole , and that he have not learn how to live as a black man in the South, he should hide his true feelings and act different in front of white people , and also he has to think before he speaks to whites.


Another example or racial discriminations related to humillation is shown in chapter twelve when a black worker called Shorty earned money by being a clown and by humillating himself , in order to make whites laugh ,and give him some coins . For example one day he asks a white man for a quarter and in return lets the man kick him in the pants . To Richard this event was disgusting , but other black workers cared more about bread than about dignity .


The last example of racism is related with education . In Chapter thirteen Richard is interested in reading a book from H.L Mencken , but black people wasn’t allowed to borrow books from the public library and so he asked a catholic man , if he could borrow his card and he accepted .Not letting black people to read books from the public library was unfair , people should always have the right to learn , but obviously black men were consider as people with no intelligence , and also very few wanted to improve their situation , they were only interested in survival.





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Killing

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¡§She was not asleep, as her roommates had thought when they approached the bed of Joni Lenz on the afternoon of January 4, 174. They found her lying in a pool of blood that was seeping from her head and face. Terrified, her roommates removed the covers from Joni Lenzs body only to find an even more horrible sight. A bed rod had been torn away from the bed and savagely rammed into her vagina. Shortly after her discovery, Joni was transported to the hospital as she lay in a coma, suffering from brain damage that would affect her for the rest of her life. However, she was lucky to be alive. Joni was one of the few victims to survive an attack by Ted Bundy who reigned terror across the United States during the 170s. There were countless more victims before and after Joni who were not so fortunate to have lived. Some thirty-six women may have fallen prey to Bundy, but only he knew for sure. It is a number that Bundy has carried with him to his grave¡¨ (Bell, par. 1). No one could have imagined that the handsome young man by the name of Ted Bundy, a native of Philadelphia, could be responsible for the terrifying reign of vicious rapes and murders that left women across the state of Washington wondering if they would become the next victim on his criminal record. Or how could people fathom the fear that ran rampant as the serial killer known as David Berkowitz, otherwise known as the Son of Sam, brought the city of New York to its knees during the mid 70¡¦s. Then there is the case Albert DeSalvo, who till this very day still brings on debates as to whether or not he is the infamous Boston Strangler who¡¦s victims ranged from the age of 1 to 85 (Lester 1).


Regardless of geographical location, serial killers baffle police departments all across the globe. The obvious question raised when researching these criminals is how they were able to turn the corner from being law-abiding citizens to terrifying and in some cases sadistic maniacs. Upon labelling an individual as a serial killer one must


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understand what exactly is it that separates a serial killer from just an ordinary murderer. By popular definition, an individual who attacks and kills and least three to four victims one by one in a series of incidents in a relatively short interval would be deemed a serial murderer. This however is a fairly subjective definition for many reasons. Firstly, if an individual goes to prison after a couple of murders and upon release continues his spree of killings, does his time in prison automatically reduce his victim count to zero? What if the killings were separated by years instead of months is the individual still considered to be a serial killer? Or even so, what if the individual kills twelve people is he only considered being a serial killer after the third victim or is he not a serial killer if he is caught after his second victim? For the sake of argument we will use the definition of a serial killer stated above as the tentative definition for our future references to a serial killer.


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Sociologists have many theories as why people decide to live outside the accepted social standards of living and become deviants. Everything from Robert Merton¡¦s Strain Theory to other theories such as Control Theories, Opportunity Theories and finally Emile Durkheim reasoning that deviance has its positive benefits. Serial killers are the most extreme cases of deviant people who do not live within the constraints of the law but exercise their behaviour outside of the accepted norm. Is this behaviour genetic, hormonal, biological, or cultural? Do these people consciously kill or are they basically a slave to their uncontrollable urges? We all at some point in our lives experience irrepressible rage when we felt that following normal human conduct could take a little breather so we can act strictly on our impulses, but just as we all have these violent urges, we also have internal blockades that keep us from practicing these urges. Be it universal morality or cultural programming, these strongholds do not exist in the mind of a serial killer. Their mind operates seemingly outside of normal consciousness, or does it? Many people would assume that they would have to be insane to slaughter another human being and in some cases dismembering it for that momentary pleasure, but the most chilling fact about a number of serial killers is that they are many times fairly rational beings. As investigator Dennis Nilsen put it, ¡§a mind can be evil without being abnormal¡¨ (par. 4).


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So how does a seemingly normal person take the path to becoming a serial killer? In most instances, sociologist looks to the individual¡¦s upbringing for explanations. Some serial killers are precociously sadistic from a very early age as Edmund Kemper, a sexual predator was. As a young child he was beheading his sisters dolls and engaged in sexual games. He once told his sister that he wanted to kiss his own teacher but ¡§if I kiss her I would have to kill her first¡¨ (Scott, par. 1). In other cases, early childhood head injuries could be put to blame as with Earle Leonard Nelson, otherwise known was the ¡§Gorilla Murderer¡¨ who suffered a severe head injury as a child, which left him permanently brain-damaged, which subsequently led to retardation (Lester ). It is important to examine serial killing from different perspectives, first from a ¡§what drives people to engage in this time of criminal activity¡¨ and secondly from a ¡§why some commit crime and why others do not¡¨ (Brym 455).


Roberts Merton, whose best-known work is of the ¡§Strain Theory,¡¨ is a believer that ¡§most criminal behaviour would not occur unless a social context exist that encourages our pushes a person toward crime¡¨ (Brym 455). This believes that criminal behaviour is influenced by society and does not derive directly from an individual. Criminals by default are thus generally brought up in low-income communities and the potential to move up the social rank is not a viable or seen to be an achievable. As a result of this, people resort to crime and other deviant activities as a means to rebel against the ¡§closed system.¡¨ Carl Panzram, a remorseless, vicious, child rapist, often known as the man with no soul, was born to a poor farming family in lower class rural Minnesota in 181. At a very young age he was forced to hard labour to earn money and life was made even more difficult when his parents divorced. A series of bad luck would follow Carl as grew up, ¡§everybody thought it was all right to deceive me, lie to me and kick me around whenever they felt like it, and they felt like it pretty regular¡¨ (Gado, par. 6). Lack of opportunities and economic success can lead people down a road of destruction when they start to believe that God has dealt them an unfair hand. Merton was a strong advocate on the lower class as being more prone to criminal activity, which did draw strong critical reactions (Brymm 455).


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Control Theorist contends that, ¡§deviance and crime occur because of the absence of some kind of control¡¨ (Brymm 457). Young children who do not have close ties to social institutions such as their parents, teachers, and peers and with very weak bonds to conventional values find it easier to live outside society¡¦s norm and would therefore be more likely to submit to their deviant urges. On the other hand, adolescents with strong bonds with conventionality would be less likely to risk breaking society constraints (Brymm 457). Other versions of control theory centre on people with low self esteem who try to get what they want quickly and in some cases forcibly. Naturally this would lead to unconformity and rule breaking. Rapists are usually regarded in the manner of having low self-esteem with woman and therefore would exercise their supremacy over the opposite sex by raping them. Tend Bundy, was a young man who brutally raped and murdered young ladies. He was a very shy child and as he grew up his shyness was directed towards women especially when it was revealed to him that what he once thought was his older sister was actually his birth mother and the parents who he grew up with were actually his grandparents. His break-up with his girlfriend left him depressed and he was never completely able to recover from it (Bell, par. 7-8). According to sociologist, families are the major source of control that can prevent deviance. Early childhood socialization and proper punishment for misbehaviour is crucial in developing a strong foundation for the child. If these control measures are implemented early in life, children will be less likely to be susceptible to negative influences and would be less prone to resort to deviance when feeling strained (Brymm 457).


Opportunity theories make the claim that school shootings are not the product of negligent social institutions but occurred due to the fact that these teenagers have easy access to firearms. The theorist assume ¡§that in the absence of inner controls, such as a conscience, or external controls, such as a police officer on the corner or a lock in the door, most of us would engage in crime,¡¨ however, the type of crime we engage in is strictly dependent on the opportunity that is available to us at the moment (Brymm 458).


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Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris, who were dubbed as the trench coat mafia, were two teenage boys who were constantly bullied at school. Eventually they came to the conclusion they had no reason to live, as a result they decided to kill themselves but not before taking down some classmates along with them. It was astonishing to people how these kids were able to have the access as they did to weapons but more so, how no one was able to see the tragedy coming. In a letter to the police department, a day before they boys opened fire in their highschool, they blamed the people who ridiculed them and to parents who they believed was responsible for their intolerant children (Ramsland, par. -). Although being mocked at by their fellow peers was motivation enough to take some sort of action, the availability of guns created the opportunity for them to open fire. ¡§Where lethal weapons are more available, then, the opportunities for lethal violence are much greater¡¨ (Brymm 458).


Not everyone who experiences abuse as a child, or severe head injuries become serial killers in their adult years, but there are exceptions. In some cases, the barbaric treatment of a child leaves little wonder how anything less than a serial killer could be produced from such harsh treatments. Many sadistic criminals depict their childhood as an endless nightmare of sexual abuse and torture, leaving little room for a normal upbringing to be present. As we examine childhood abuse as a possible key to understanding how children grow up to be killers, it must be remembered that childhood abuse is not the sole reason why killers are present because very few females who are victimized as children grow up to be extremely violent (Scott, par. -4).


Parents, who abuse their children, instil values of reliance on violence every time a challenging situation approaches. Physical violence not only is damaging physically to a child but also has psychological affects that are hard to forget even as the child becomes an adult. As stated before, the family is the major form of control so naturally a weak bond derived from parental beatings is detrimental for the child who is still learning what is acceptable is society and what is not. The parental institution, which is generally believed to be the essential part of a child developing, is undergoing great social change. Many problems can occur from this social shift but ¡§the main result of this change is the


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decline in the importance of the family¡¦s role in general social life¡¨ (Clinard 67). As a result of this change, other groups and institutions do the significant part of a child¡¦s socialization and because it is impossible for parental supervision to cover a child¡¦s social habits on a consistent basis, many times peers can socialize a child negatively.


Durheim believed that deviance was a necessary part of a functioning society given that it existed in all societies; therefore it must have some beneficial consequences (Brymm 45). He argues that deviant behaviour increases social solidarity because in those circumstances people are united under a common fear and a common need for retribution for the crime committed. He believes deviance allows people to clarify the group¡¦s moral boundaries and to allow societies to adapt to a changing world (Brymm 45). Durkheim realized that too much deviance can lead to chaos but a certain amount can be beneficial. Although it does seems plausible under the right circumstances that a community can be united when facing deviant behaviour it is not necessarily a necessity. Unification of society can occur in many other ways. A good amount of deaths by a serial killer although undoubtedly has the potential to unite a community, it is not an essential element for that community to function productively. The well being of a society can just as well be destroyed by a same amount of deviance that Durkheim argues is necessary for it to function.


Society plays a major role in the development of a serial killer. An atmosphere where violence is common and not controlled can influence children negatively as they see violence is only a natural part of the world. Society many times glorify killing, portraying it as exciting and the media plays a large role in bombarding youths with violence which subsequently leads to the desensitization of violent behaviour in our generation. Violence therefore becomes the norm and is no longer regarded as wrong in the eyes of the naive.


So what is it that makes a serial killer? Are serial killers born or is it forced upon them by unlucky circumstances. For the most part, serial killers are made. In many of the cases, nightmarish upbringings consisting of violence and torture either by the parents or


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the authoritative figure is what most investigators link back to when interviewing serial killers. Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer, John Wayne Gacy, and David Berkowitz etc, all of which had unfortunate childhood experiences. Despite the fact that most appear to be rational there are those that are clinically insane while killing. Some suffer from sever head injuries; others claim to be under the influence of demons or even have satanic undertones while killing. The majority of cases when examined can be traced back to mistreatment at a young age. So what does this mean to us as a society? Ideally it implies that serial killers can be prevented. When we exclude someone from a group, when we ridicule someone for not keeping with the latest fashion trend, or when we bully a fellow classmate, we should stop and think of the consequences. This negative treatment can leave behind permanent emotional scars on the individual that can further lead to violent behaviour. Although not every victim of harassment becomes a serial killer, it is to the betterment of society that we treat each other as equals and promote unity. Areas in which social solidarity is high as Durkheim argues, experiences lower levels of violence as people are more in touch with one another. Communities should work within themselves to promote social solidarity, thus decreases the opportunity for violent behaviour.





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Tuesday, April 24, 2012

wild swans

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Wild Swans is one of those astonishing books where the accolades carried on the dust jacket - heart-rending, masterpiece, extraordinary, mesmerising and so on - are all absolutely true. All convey the incredible achievement of the author, Jung Chang, as she traces her family over three generations from the early 100s to the epilogue in the 10s.


We are taken into an increasingly insane and surreal world, as the dark heart of Chinas Cultural Revolution in the 160s is gradually laid bare. Oppression oozes from every page. The godlike Chairman Mao infiltrates every aspect of daily life, literally down to each thought - and even breath.


Even before we reach the Cultural Revolution - the term first appeared in the Chinese press in 165 - we are launched into a society of custom and tradition at once venerated, yet also the source of depredation and violence; a society, as Chang points out, in which justice is arbitrary and cruelty both institutionalised and capricious.


Within a few pages we are confronted with the practice of foot binding, for instance. Jung Changs beautiful grandmother had her feet bound when she was two. They were regarded as her greatest asset and were referred to as three-inch golden water lilies. Chang explains that this meant she walked like a tender young willow shoot in a spring breeze. In the society of the time


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The sight of a woman teetering on bound feet was supposed to have an erotic effect on men, partly because her vulnerability induced a feeling of protectiveness in the onlooker.


The description of how the feet were bound is painful to read, yet sets the tone for much of what is to follow the cruelty, the oppression, the deprivations of a whole nation at the hands of a ruthless and calculating tyrant.


Changs account never descends into self-pity, however. In its level-headed and fiercely intelligent rendering, it takes us not simply into the heart of darkness, but also that of understanding.


We learn how, incredible though it may seem, peoples spirit can be crushed, how millions can be coerced into a life they have no control over and how, when your every word and action are being scrutinized, it becomes impossible to speak out.


Yet there is also an uplifting of the spirit, a resilience that ultimately manifests itself in the fact that the book has been written at all, and in the lives of those who survived against the grimmest odds.


The book arouses a complex mix of emotions and disbelief, exposing not only a cultural aberration of the recent past, but also placing our own society and what we take for granted in a new light.


Yet, all the time, it reads like an incredible adventure story. Its lucid writing holds our attention from the outset. Once youve started, you simply have to read on to the end of the 700 or so pages.





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TOO Good

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Industrial Revolution This time period is quite an exciting period to be studying the Industrial Revolution, because of the fact that there is another revolution going on in the workplace. Every time technology changes, everything around it changes, and it is an exponential process. Technology increases, and then, using the new technology, it increases even more. 0 years ago, people used filing cabinets, and a pencil and paper, but recently, with the invention of computers, all that has been turned into hard disks, and emails, and gigabytes. Before the Industrial Revolution, people were farmers, and life was pretty slow, but with inventions like the cotton gin, and the assembly line, mass production evolved. Mass production is when companies can “pump” out the same product at a very efficient and inexpensive rate. The assembly line was one of these methods. An item would be sent down a treadmill, and at each point, there would be someone to work on one aspect of it. One person would punch a hole, and the next person would put in a screw, and so on, down the line, until the item was complete. This began something called division of labor. This was when people would repeat the same task over and over again, such as in an assembly line. This was very repetitive, and quite boring. England was a country that was the ideal for the Industrial Revolution it was on the water, so it was perfect for trade. It had lots of natural resources, and also a large population. The population both led to more ideas, and more workers. The country was also a wealthy one, with a good economy, and therefore there were ample investors for companies to begin. The revolution eventually spread to Western Europe, and even to the Americas. There is no doubt that inventions and technology was the key to the Industrial Revolution. It changed the way things are made, it changed the price, and it changed the working conditions. It was indeed, revolutionary. PART The Industrial Revolution in Britain changed the society profoundly; it caused a complete change in working conditions and the relationship between the working and middle classes. The working conditions became very harsh during the industrial revolution. Assembly lines led to mass production, which led to the division of labor. The division of labor was a method of working which involved doing the same task over and over. It was totally mindless, and it led to bitterness towards the middle class from the working class. The managers of the factories, whom were members of the working class, became more concerned with profit vs. expenses after learning about mass production, and started to cut wages to make a quick buck. This also led to bitterness on the part of the working class. The emergence of the strong middle class was part of the marked changed that occurred during the Industrial Revolution in Britain. These working conditions are still applicable to the factory workers of today; this shows how revolutionary they were. This was the first time in history the working and middle classes disputed over conditions, and wages. This relationship is still very common, and very important. If the workers don’t complain, then they will not work as hard because of their feeling of resentment towards their bosses. And vice-versa, if the bosses don’t try to lower wages, then they will have to make up for it with higher prices, and then the consumer suffers. The protest towards bosses led to the formation of unions, which are still a very important part of the economy. The Industrial Revolution affected the whole stability of a nation, not only the economy. It affected the relationships between classes, and also the relationships between countries. The most important part is how all of these concepts are very much applicable to today’s economy, which is why the Industrial Revolution was such an important period of time in the history of the world.


Technology Application In 1 Century


A quote I heard many times when I was in high school and which I now know traces back to Sir Francis Bacon, one of our earliest scientist or philosophers as they were then called, is the statement Knowledge Is Power. Today, I believe that the fuller, more correct statement is to say, the application of knowledge is power. The study of science, and technology subjects will broader our opportunities in life. As we continue to advance to the 1st century- now lesser than 0 days away-we are well aware that technology is possibly the hottest industrial commodity around the world today. In the years ahead, it will be an increasingly critical factor in determining the success or failure of businesses. It is the fuel many of us are looking at to help us win this race to the 1st century. To do that, we should make technology matter. In this paper I am going to share my technology forecasts. I try to focus on my new forecasts a decade into the future - the first decade of the 1st century, because that is how far most businesses need to be looking ahead. There has never been a neutral or value-free, technology. All technologies are power. They evoke economic and social consequences in direct proportion to their dislocation of the existing economy and its institutions. I believe that technologies such as biotechnology and genetic engineering, intelligent materials, the miniaturization of electronics, and smart manufacturing systems, and controls, will be the hottest technologies in the next decade. I am going to put together a list of what I think as the top ten innovative products that will result from those technologies. Number one on the list is something we call genetic. There are pharmaceutical products that will come from the massive genetic research going on around the world today. In ten years, we will have new ways to treat many of our ills - from allergies to ADIS. We may see the discovery of new methods of treatment for various types of cancer, for multiple sclerosis, osteoporoses, Lou Gehrigs and Alzheimers disease, to name just a few. The biotechnology frontier, especially developments in the field of genetic, promises- and to some degree has already archived - a revolution in agriculture and human health care. But proving the means to develop plant species that are more disease-and-pest-resistant, more tolerant of drought, and able to grow during extended periods of adverse conditions. These technologies will very likely provide future increasing in agricultural productivity. So far, these techniques have not add much to world food production; recent grow has come primarily from increasing acreage in production, in response to higher grain prices. However, further expansion of productive land is limited, and the increased application of fertilizer appears to be reaching a point of diminishing returns. Therefore, increased agricultural productivity from this new field could be essential to feed the growing population. The mapping of human and plant genomes, a process already well underway, will provide greatly increased knowledge of genetic processes and, to some extend, information about how to control them. For humans, this will provide the means to deal with diseases that have genetic origins or result from man functioning of genetic material in the body. These diseases include potentially cancer, cystic fibrosis, Gauchers, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, hypercholesterolemia, and many others. Furthermore, genome analysis of an individual can indicate propensity to diseases whose symptoms have not yet been manifested. Scientists believe that many psychological and behavior attributes can be genetically controlled and therefore subject to diagnosis and eventually, for aberrant conditions, corrected. Such uses of this technology, of courses, raise serious social and ethical questions that must be considered. Other applications of biotechnology might produce novel protein for food replacing meat, stimulate awareness and evaluation of microbial threats (including archaea, ancient bacteria, being perhaps more adaptable and potentially hazardous than was previous thought), and creation of plantation to produce and distribute biological products in the ocean. The process of cloning was perfected; evidence by the fact that in 17 a sheep was successfully cloned in Scotland. Hence, biotechnology could eventually eliminate food shortages, improve health, and extend life expectancy. Number two on the list is the personalized computer. The personal computer now sitting on our desk will be replaced by a very powerful, personalized computer. It will be able to send and receive wireless data. It will recognize your voice and follow your voice commands. It will include a variety of security and service tools that will make the computer fit your own individual needs. When we turn on our personalized computer the intelligent agents built into it might automatically show us high-lights and stories from last nights football game. It could display the current stock report on your own portfolio and ask it you would like to make any changes. It would give us a traffic report for our normal commute to work and suggest an alternate, if necessary. Finally, it may let us know what the lunch specials are at our favorite restaurants and ask if we would like to make reservations. The third product on my list is the multi-fuel automobile. In ten years, our cars will have to meet even stricter requirements for emissions and efficiency. And to do that, we are going to see a gradual shift to other fuel and power sources. Barring a major oil crisis, we dont see a rapid shift to those alternatives. The internal combustion engine will still have a major place in ten years. But we will see an increase in vehicles running on energy sources like batteries, kinetic energy, fuel cells, and hybrid sources. At first, these will be used in low-weight vehicles that typically travel short distances. But as these alternative- powered vehicles are introduced into the general population, many of our experts believe that they will likely run on a combination of fuels - like reformulated gasoline, electricity, and compressed natural gas. The fourth product is the next generation television set. Ninety-nine percent of American homes have televisions, and over the next decade, we will be replacing them. These new television sets will be wide-screen, digital, high-definition models with extremely sharp clarity. Many will be so flat that we will hang them on the wall much like a large painting. Eventually, these televisions will merge with the personalized computer I mentioned earlier. Of course, we are going to have to pay for all these wonderful products, and we will probably be doing that will the fifth item on the list, electronic cash. We will be using electronic money for everything from buying soda in a vending machine to making an international transaction over our computer. In ten years, our pocket might not jingle, because credit-card-sized smart cards will have all but replaced our cash and keys. At colleges, we will developed a system that will allow students to pay their tuition, sign up for classes, download textbooks onto their computer, do their laundry, enter their dorm, and order a pizza, all with one smart card. That card, of course, will be directly linked to their parents bank account! The next product on my list is the home health monitor. These devices will be inexpensive, simple-to-use, and non-invasive (which basically means they wont puncture our skin). We will use them to monitor our health conditions right at home. They will be able to track a variety of our physical functions - like liver, levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, sugar, hormones, water, salt, and potassium. Monitoring our total health will be as simple as keeping track of our weight today. The future industrial applications of biology and computing will allow more people than ever before to participate in creating imaginative service, to build new markets and to generate personal wealth. Number seven on the list is another one for our cars. It is smart maps and global positioning systems. Already, we can get a global positioning system in our cars, and it will show us where we are on a map and plot routes. But it wont give us any information about whats going on around us. That is whats going to be different in ten years. We will be combining global position system with the traffic management infrastructure to help manage traffic flow. So, our dashboard map will show us where traffic problems are, and it will plot the best rout around them. We will also be using global positioning systems to help stop crime by giving us the power to monitor the location of our cars and other valuables. And we will be able to follow the exact location of our most precious valuable. Parents will be able to follow the location of their children as they walk home from school. The eighth product on my list is also one we might have in our cars, and we might also have it our office buildings, pipelines, airplanes, and even our sports equipments. These are new, smart materials that will give off warnings when they detect excessive stress. Materials in bridges or airplanes, for instance, could send a signal to a central operator when they detect stress, and that operator could send a return signal for the materials to respond to the stress. Automobile parts could give us a similar warning when they are approaching the point of breakdown. What is really amazing is that these materials will be designed with sensors built into the molecular structure of material. And, not too far in the future, they will be inexpensive enough to be in products all around us. Ninth on my list are anti-aging and weight-control products. That is something we would like to see. Over the next decade, we will see the development of a host of high-tech weight-control and anti-aging products for all the aging baby boomers. Unfortunately, no Fountain of Youth is on the horizon. If it was, I would be back in the lab working on it myself. Nevertheless, new products will make aging a little less traumatic. In fact, we think technology will allow us to look forward to active and comfortable retirements well into our 80s. These new products may include weight-control drugs that use the bodys natural weight-control mechanism, wrinkle creams that actually work foods with enhanced nutrients, and an effective cure for baldness. The final item on my list is not technically a single, specific product.




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Monday, April 23, 2012

1998 water front dispute:how it could be avoided

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Introduction


Waterfront dispute is one of the biggest and the most important disputes in the history of Australia. The waterfront dispute of 18 was an incredible tale of legal drama, violent confrontation, strange alliances, betrayals, family difference and nefarious deceit. The stakes were high the economic viability of the company at the centre of the dispute, Patrick Stevedores, was at risk; the government was pursuing a cornerstone of its labour market reform and the breaking of unionisation on the docks; the Maritime Union of Australia and it’s supporter’s, were fighting for survival and the principle of freedom of association the right to join a union and not be sacked for it. Everyone involved in this dispute faced problems. This dramatic battel between MUA and Patrick Stevedores represented the first major trial of strength between government and the unions.


As said by Tom Sheridan “History is important in understanding labour relations, particularly in those singular industries, notably coal mining and stevedoring, which often seem to challenge the old saw that if we forget history we will be condemned to repeat it again”, it is important that if we don’t remember what had happened and repeat it again we will responsible for another waterfront dispute in the future.


This dispute was not unavoidable. It could have been avoided if proper steps were taken to make it easier for both the parties to solve the dispute without dissolving personal interest of both the parties, in such a way that everyone gains something out of it rather than everyone loosing, like how it happened where the employees lost their jobs, employers a lot of money and the unions and government faced lots of problems. Some of the most important steps that could have helped are the proper human resource management practices by the stevedoring industry. If stevedoring industry would have taken proper steps and used proper human recourse practices it could have avoided lots of problems that it faced.


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Role of Human Resource Managers to Avoid 18 Waterfront Dispute


In today’s world Human Resource Manager play a very important role in industries. They have many jobs like recruiting, human resource planning, job analysis and design, selection and placement and many more. In waterfront dispute stevedoring industry could have used proper human resource management practices and with the help of human resource managers could have avoided the dispute. Here some of the points the managers could have concentrate in order to avoid the dispute are


1. Managing Change


. Handling Workplace Grievances And Disciplining Employees


. Development; Training & Career


Managing Change


“Managing change means managing peoples fear. Change is natural and good, but peoples reaction to change is unpredictable and irrational. It can be managed if done right”. Human resource mangers duty is to manage this change and let the employees feel comfortable and accept the change. Employees are usually feared of this change, they usually have negative attitude and perception towards change. They have different fears like losing their jobs, their status or their social security, afraid of a higher workload and many more.


The first effect of change on employees is negative these effects include fear, stress, frustration and denial of change. They are afraid of loosing something as they have incomplete information on how the change process is going to effect their personal situation in the terms of task, workload or responsibilities. Sometimes in changes there are job cuts and people who survive these cuts may also have negative attitude like feeling guilty because they still have the job while others became unemployed and other things which causes stress and thus lead to inefficient and ineffective work which will lead to lesser productivity of the company.


The managers need to keep all these in mind and try to achieve positive results and handle the change effectively. There are certain steps to be taken by the managers to manage change effectively they are


· Understanding The mangers have to do a proper study of the business environment, the organization and its culture and knowing the organizations capability to respond to critical factors and decide wether changes can be coped with and how they might be handled.


· Planning The second step to be taken by the managers is to set the strategic direction, communicate at all levels and give a clear idea both to the organization and its people of where it is going and why.


· Implementing The third step to be taken by the manager establishing a change programme, led by a good manager to make things happen and support people through training and development.


· Controlling the Change Process Last but not the least the managers had to expect the unexpected, keep track of progress, continue to learn and improve from the experience.


Changes can occur because of many reasons. It could be due to new product developmet, introduction of new technology, change in work force, reduced productivity, product quality, satisfaction, commitment and many more. Change can happen anytime and in any organization and cause of anything the human resouse managers role is to undertand it and try to manage it so that everyone gains something or the other from it.


In Australian Waterfront Dispute of 18 these mangers could have played a major role to avoid it to happen if stevedoing industry would have used proper human resource management practices. The stevedoring industry knew that there would be major changes in the industry because of the introduction of new technology and they knew that a lot of people would be left job less but didnt take any step. The employees used the help of unions to threaten the employers for better work facilities and other demands but the stevedoring industry with the help of govenment tried to get rid of the unions thus resulting in a big dispute in which everyone involved lost something .


If the human resource managers who were involved would have taken appropriate measures, they would have helped the employees to retain their jobs, the employes not to loose the huge sum of money they lost and the other parties as well. Some of the steps that would have helped the managers to avoid thes dipute are, they could have put up Voluntry redundancy plans by which the employees could have taken some proper benifits and awards and left the job themselves without creation such a big problem, they could have used Multi tasking for helping the employees to learn more skills and training them in different types of works and skills and helping them out, they could have Seeked new jobs for redundant employees by doing this the managers could have helped the employees at least of not loosing everything as they already have many industries in many fields they could have employed them there to help avoid this conflict.


Human resourse managers could have helped a lot to avoid this conflict they could have understood the changes that would have taken place and taken proper steps to help everyone involved in the dispute. This could have helped the stevedoring industry a lot.


HANDLING WORKPLACE GRIEVANCES AND DISCIPLINING EMPLOYEES


A grievance is a statement given by an employee about a problem, concern or even a complaint that arises in the work place. These may arise may be mainly due to allocation of work, job design, performance management, a workplace communication or interpersonal conflict, an occupational health or safety issue, an allegation of discrimination within the meaning of the Anti-Discrimination Act 177 including harassment, or a question, dispute or difficulty concerning the interpretation, application, or operation of an enterprise or any other agreement.


If the grievances of the employees are not resolved promptly, it may have a major impact in the organization. These may include problems like


· Lost productivity;


· Lower quality work, products and customer services;


· Distraction from corporate goals;


· Loss of confidence and communication between employees, managers and supervisors;


· Low morale and job satisfaction which can lead to industrial problems, increased absenteeism and increased staff turnover;


· Loss of reputation as an employer and service provider;


· Loss of reputation to the employee;


· Lost working time of everyone involved in dealing with a complaint; and


· The potential for legal action and damages.


Grievances and other issues rose by the employees need to be considered and effectively solved by the human resource managers. Grievances are just to deal with matters relating to an individual employee. The employees have got every right to take up any issue and report those problems to the management. The employer can also point out to any employee if the rules of the agreement are not followed. In some cases the use of grievance procedures can result in a recommendation that the employer take action through the disciplinary process. Unlike a grievance procedure, a discipline process deals with performance or conduct matters identified by the employer. If a grievance is raised during a discipline process, the grievance needs to be finalised but the disciplinary process should continue independently.


External support in dealing with grievances


The right of employees to seek appropriate external support and assistance to deal with their work-related concerns and grievances should be respected and incorporated into agency procedures. The employees should be made aware of the procedures of seeking and getting advice from the union and they should free to be represented by the union. People should be informed, when relevant, of their right to have an issue dealt with by an external organization such as the Anti-Discrimination Board or the Industrial Relations Commission.


It is the responsibility of the human resource managers to encourage employees to understand the agency’s procedures for resolving work-related concerns and grievances and providing timely and confidential assistance to the employees in order to make sure that no conflicts arise between the employees and the management. It is the duty of the employees to take prompt action on work-related issues if they are not satisfied or feel that there is anything wrong with the agency’s procedures.


As there are changes occurring in the workplace environment, organizations must adopt to that change in order to avoid conflicts between the employees and the employers. The Human Resource manager should ensure that they show considerable involvement in the selecting the right employees and providing them the right set of policies and procedures. He should also possess the ability to strategically assess the form of employment instrument that will be best suitable for the workers. By taking all these into consideration, the chances of arousal of industrial conflict in an organization can be avoided.


In the waterfront dispute, if the Human resource managers had been more vigilant about all the factors that need to be considered with regard to disputes with employees, then the industrial dispute that had led to during the waterfront could have been avoided. It is just that the employers were not aware of the requirements of the employees because of which the union had to rely on the police to remove pickets from the workplace. But if the problems were resolved between the employers and employees among themselves, then it would not have taken them so far to the police and disputations. The employees were also not very much aware of the policies of the organization. It is the human resource manager who is accountable for all these issues relating to problems in the work for the employees. The manager should have given some other opportunities for the employees as well if the unions alone were not able to solve the problem. They should have provided them with some other high authority or an agency that will be the right person to effectively understand and resolve the problems. It is the responsibility of him to ensure that all employees are aware of the policies and procedures of the unions and agencies, so that there will not be any conflicts in the future due to this. Employees need to be aware of the options available to them in a strike situation. If strikes are allowed to continue uncontrollably, there will be no incentives for employers and unions to deal with their problems constructively, which is the key issue on the waterfront. Therefore, if the human resource managers had effectively implemented the tools to select the employees, made them aware of the policies and considered their grievances and resolved them in order to grow satisfaction from employees and also to gain profitability, then it would not have been a necessity for the union to request the police to remove pickets. Thereby, measures could have been taken to avoid the dispute.


Development; Training & Career


Employee development is a key component of a company’s human resource management efforts. It is a necessary component of a company’s efforts to improve quality, to meet the challenges of global competition and social change, and to incorporate technological advances and changes in work design. Also companies (and their employees) have to constantly learn and change, to meet changing customers needs and compete in the ever changing markets, the emphasis placed on training and development has increased.


According to psychology, every one has some psychological needs & one of them is career and development accompanied with proper training. To retain and motivate employees, companies need to provide a system to identify and meet employee’s development needs.


Measuring and managing performance is also an important function of HR management. HR manager must be aware of best suitable method of performance measure for employees and once performance is measured a major component of a manager job’s is to feed that performance information back to employees in a way that result in improved performance rather than defensiveness and decreased motivation. Mangers should also take appropriate action on the cause of poor performance, whether it is ability or motivation or both.


The waterfront dispute can be seen as direct failure of human resource policies of the Patrick Stevedores employed at that time. The management practices of the employer, Patrick Stevedores was not able to motivate the employees indeed they were responsible for increasing the fear to lost the job among the employees. It is quit obvious that management was not serious towards fulfilling the psychological needs of the employees that were quit related to work practices. So if the HR management in relation of development, training & career of the employees would have done the serious and sincere efforts, this dispute could be avoided.


CONCLUSION


From the above discussion it is quit clear that the industrial dispute that rock the world could be avoided. Despite a number of third parties involved in the dispute, the main players in the dispute were the employer, Patrick Stevedores and the employees of the employer. If the appropriate HR management practices were employed by the management at that time, it is possible that instead of talking about dispute we would have been discussing about the waterfront reform by the HR managers. However some key management practice which could be useful to avoid the dispute were


1) Managing change, ) Handling Workplace Grievances And Disciplining Employees,


) Development, Training & Career. If the management of Patrick Stevedores would have been used appropriate measures to motivate their employees, and if it would have been successful in giving them full job satisfaction, the waterfront dispute would not happened.








References


Books &Articles


De Cieri, Kramar et al (00) Human Resource Management in Australia, McGraw Hill, Sydney.


Deery S, Plowman D, Walsh J, Brown M (00) Industrial Relation A Contemporary Analysis, nd edition.


Tom Sheridan, The 18 Australian Waterfront Dispute In its Historical Context, International Employment Relations Review, Vol 5, No. , 1.


Barbara Pocock, Success in Defence Union Strategy and the 18 Maritime Dispute, International Employment Relations Review, Vol 5, No. , 1.


Gerard G, & Stuart S, Industrial Relation and 18 Waterfront Dispute, International Employment Relations Review, Vol 5, No. , 1.


Web sites visited


http//www.ogc.gov.uk/sdtoolkit/reference/deliverylifecycle/impplans/manag_change.html


http//members.aol.com/AllenWeb/change.htm


http//www.themanager.org/Strategy/Change_Phases.htm


http//management.about.com/library/weekly/aa00.htm


http//www.intelligo.ie/newsletter/February/hrmanagers.htm


http//www.hrworld.com/


http//www.eeo.nsw.gov.au/employee/grievanc.htm


http//www.scope4u.com/grievance.asp#6


http//www.acci.asn.au/text_files/issues_papers/Waterfront_Reform/WR0.pdf


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THE PORTRAIT OF WILLIE GEE

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THE PORTRAIT OF WILLIE GEE


Robert Henri an American painter and art educator was born in Cincinnati Ohio in 1865. He was educated at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Academie Julian and the Ecole des Beaux Art in Paris. In 181 he began to paint and teach in Philadelphia, where he met the painters John Sloan, William Glackens and George Luks. He inspired them to paint American life with vigorous dramatic realism. The Group moved to New York City, they joined other painters to form the Eight or the so-called Ashcan school. Henri broke with academic tradition, especially in his portrayals of the crude vigor of city life. He was not content to paint portrait s of the Aristocrats but he paint portraits of everyday poor people living in the city.


Henri was known for his warm, vibrant portraits, particularly of children. In his painting the Portrait of Willie Gee, oil on canvas, 104, his robust, free brushwork and strong compositions can be seen. Willie Gee was a newspaper boy who delivered Henri’s paper at his Sherwood Studio at Sixth Ave. and 57th street.


Willie Gee is a naturalistic portrait where in most of the outlines are blurred and the colors are muted. Dark colors are use throughout the painting with the exception of the apple that was painted red. The red apple could be seen against the dark tones of colors and these contrasts draw my attention to the significant of the apple. This apple according to the artist is an inexpensive form of nourishment given by a benevolent society to newsboy. White color was used to depict Willie’s eyes and his tie. Henri captures Willie Gee form when he placed him against a dark background. He uses heavy strokes with his brushes and each can be seen on the painting. He subordinated the background by not placing any objects there, so that all the Emphasis could be focus on Willie’s face and the red apple in his hand. These I believe were the focal point of the painting.


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The painting is not detail except for Willie’s face where Implied light was used. The source of light cannot be seen but from the way the shadows fall it catches Willie’s face on the right side. Willie’s eyes are bright and hold a lot of sadness not found often in children. The red apple in his hand, did not take the tired, sad look out of his eyes. The light that falls on Willie’s face seems to fall on the apple in his hand. The hand holding the apple was not shown, the apple seems to be balancing on air. The top half of the painting is somewhat detail while the bottom half is not detail. Directional lines also play an important role in the portrait of Willie’s Gee. The sad look in his eyes drew my attention first to his face and then to the apple. This links the painting together so that our eyes will look from his face to the apple and from the apple to his face.


What captured my attention about this painting was the look on Willie’s face. The colors used give an emotional effect so I have a direct emotional response to it. This painting was a reality not a sense of someone posing for a picture but real life. Everything about the painting depicted the time and what was going on with poverty and the poor. Many artists did not paint the poor and poverty but they usually paint the rich.


Henri taught at the Art Students League and other schools in New York City, championed juryless exhibitions, and traveled widely. The Art Spirit, a compilation of Henri’s lectures, was published in 1 and is still read. The Portrait of Willie Gee can be seen at The Newark Museum. The painting is 1 1/4x 6 ¼. He died in 1.





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Sunday, April 22, 2012

Vocabulary

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User Model


This database is designed for students in the SLIS who have taken LIBR0 for their continued use during their program. The students will use this database to further their knowledge of information retrieval. Students will be conducting formalized queries. At this level the students are able to articulate the problem clearly.


The types of queries the students will pose will be mainly that of topics and methods of information retrieval. The articles were indexed generously, due to the many ways the student will be researching. The facets of the articles that need to be indexed are terms that are synonymous with information retrieval and the aspects of information retrieval.


Subject Headings Rules


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Our method of design for the 0 database involves the use of subject headings and subdivisions to combine a number of different topics. These combinations can be in no more than two terms a heading and subheading. All terms come from the controlled vocabulary of ERIC descriptors. Terms can be strung together according to the following rules


· The Heading will always be a topic


The heading of the precoordinate term will always contain a topic of the article


· Topics can be subheadings


· Subheadings can also contain topical descriptors in relation to the topic described by the heading if they provide further classification on the field


· A Heading can also be a subheading


Once designated as a heading, an ERIC descriptor can also be utilized as a sub-heading


· Form will always be a subheading, not a heading


The method of presentation of the information, and the way of gathering it, (form) will always be listed as a subheading, and cannot be the main topic of the article


· System names can either be a heading or a subheading


Names of systems mentioned in this database refer to methods of information retrieval, and can either be a heading, if it is the topic of the article, or a subheading, if it refers to a topic presented in the article


· Geography can either be a heading or a subheading


Similar to the LCSH rules on geographic subdivision, topical subject headings can be further delineated by geographic subheadings, or geographic headings may be linked to a topic subheading. A geographic term can only be in the heading of the precoordinate term if it is also the subject (topic) of the article.


Results


Searching the terms cognition, cognitive processes, and cogniti the results are displayed below.


Cognition


Title Abstract ERIC Preco


11.5% 00% 11.5% 00%


Cognitive Processes


Title Abstract ERIC Preco


00% 11.5% 56.5% 00%


Cogniti


Title Abstract ERIC Preco


450% 450% 8100% 675%


There were eight articles in this database that were relevant to the terms cognition and cognitive processes. For precision see the above charts.


After creating the preco terms and searching some changes should be made. It is very difficult to create preco terms. In trying to be generous so that precision would be high almost every heading became a subheading and vice versa. In the three searches conducted on cognition, using a truncated version of cognitive (cogniti) provided the most precision. In addition using a truncated word was the only way in which abstracts were found in the preco field. This leads us to believe that when searching a preco field it is more beneficial to have more than one word to search since in this database the preco field is searched by term rather than words. Using a truncated version of a word left the rest of the phrase open to find abstracts in the preco field.


If this exercise had to be done over, I would choose to have someone other than myself create the preco field. The errors in this section came from me trying to create my preco terms so that my search would be successful, rather than being concerned with the other people would search this database. As we learned in this class, this can be a problem. When the creators of the preco fields take into account what they would be looking for rather than the user model.








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Masculinity in the Media

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The relationship between masculinity and the media first came into focus in the 170s and gained increased scholarly attention in the late 180s. It continued to generate work that theorizes, interprets and evaluates masculinity with or in the media. In modern Western societies, it is considered ‘masculine’ to be aggressive, independent and active. There is a considerable debate as to whether these qualities really are sexual characteristics of the gender, whether they are biologically or socially determined, and in what ways they maintain male power.


Masculinity is defined as the state of an organism reflecting or displaying the appearances, traits and behavior pattern characteristic of the male species. As defined, this whole ‘masculinity’ does not necessarily implicate gender. Many societies have ascribed different and distinctive qualities to men. However Hollywood filmmakers seem to emphasize on the whole idea of masculinity in the male gender. The two films Disclosure and Ocean’s Eleven, that I’m about to analyze tells a story on Hollywood’s perspective of men.


Disclosure


In the real world a woman has the upper hand when it comes to sexual harassment. In this film however, the whole Hollywood perspective of masculinity changes everything. In other words, the men have to ‘win’.


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In this film, sexual harassment is manifested in many ways. The power of men over women is exhibited in many linguistic senses. For example, Meredith harasses Tom and when she does not get what she wants, she gets mad. That particular scene portrays women in a new light due to the fact that this time, it’s the woman who wants to get sexually involved with an unwilling man. Not another clich�. This scene pleases the male viewers but might be insulting to female viewers. Pathetic is the idea that women are equally harassing men but any cultural analysis must take into account the intersecting levels of power in society.


In this mans world, there are two kinds of men real men, and inconvenient men. A real man is one whose economic power, social status or virility makes him sexually desirable to women and in this case, Tom falls into that category. Tom is portrayed as a charismatic individual brimming with confidence.


His wife, Susan is Hollywood’s presentation of what a ‘good wife’ should be. Any feminist would disagree on the way she deals with the situations; her husband cheated on her and she covered up for me without questioning him first? Her role can be viewed from two different perspectives altogether. It’s either she is a magnanimous individual or just someone who is too timid to stand up against her husband, afraid by doing so, it might jeopardize the marriage.


Catherine, Tom’s lawyer, is portrayed as a smart and manipulative individual. The fact that she actually won the case of female sexually harassing the male, emphasize on her capabilities as a female lawyer, supposedly fighting for female rights but ironically she helped Tom because believed it was fair. In other words, fair treatment for both male and female rights in sexual related crimes.


Meredith’s role in this film might be an insult to most women. She’s being portrayed as a ‘sexual object’ to seduce Tom upon orders from Bob, her boss. She uses body, to get what she wants. There are tons of camera shots of her body flaunting her sexuality. Her ‘I would not accept defeat character’ is somehow taunting, it generates a great feeling when justice is about to be delivered in style.


Bob, Tom’s boss is a great as a classic ‘slimeball’ type CEO who does not care a whit about his employees. He is portrayed as a shallow person who is so self-centered. This character might be insulting to both women and men. His role is stereo-typical but it displays all traits of masculinity.


Clearly, a woman can have more power over a man in certain situations, but the real issue is the prevalence of male power in this society, not a few cases of the contrary. In Disclosure, inaccurate portrayal is the idea that the male harassment of females has declined to that females are equally harassing men in the society. The relevance of visual harassment to understand the male gaze cannot be overstated.


Ocean’s Eleven


Ocean’s Eleven is actually a stylish remake the same film in the 60s. From then till now the Hollywood’s perspective of women has not changed. All involved in they robbery in the new remake are still men. The definition of masculinity; Is the fact of being a man or having qualities considered typical of a man. I am stuck in that sentence. What qualities are considered a typical of a man and if a woman has those qualities, can she be considered masculine? Is Hollywood still under-estimating the female gender?


Danny Ocean is the man behind all the planning. He is portrayed as a man with charm, confidence, class and charisma. Rust is one of the few male characters that are put on display for women to be gawked at. His sexy good-looks accompanied by less than perfect lighting please the female viewers. The gaze is on both the male characters.


The only female character in the film is Tess, Danny’s ex-wife. She is portrayed as a classic ‘feminine’ woman. The low camera angel shots made her look intimidating. Especially during that particular shot where she was walking down the stairs. She was not putting her sexuality on display to please the viewers. Instead she was a classy and sexy woman. She was brought out in a different light. In other words, female characters do not necessarily need to put their bodies on display to be viewed as beautiful.


Benedict the casino owner has everything every male viewer in the audience dreams of. He’s rich and has a beautiful woman, Tess.


This film entertains while it runs but never really engages or excites the viewers. There are too many male characters in the film and it is demeaning to the female viewers. My individual opinion; are women so incapable in the Hollywood filmmakers’ eyes?





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