Sunday, April 15, 2012

THE GLOBAL ASSEMBLY LINE[[ Human Geography Textbook: Chapter 12 ]]• What is the global assembly line?• What new patterns of industrial activity has it produced?• Why are Nike's made in China?• How has the new global assembly line affected local and region

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THE GLOBAL ASSEMBLY LINE


[[ Human Geography Textbook Chapter 1 ]]


• What is the global assembly line?


• What new patterns of industrial activity has it produced?


Write my Essay on THE GLOBAL ASSEMBLY LINE[[ Human Geography Textbook: Chapter 12 ]]• What is the global assembly line?• What new patterns of industrial activity has it produced?• Why are Nike's made in China?• How has the new global assembly line affected local and region for me




• Why are Nikes made in China?


• How has the new global assembly line affected local and regional societies,


economies and environments?


1. Characteristics of the Global Assembly Line


From Fordism (p.50) to post-Fordism (p.5)


- see Table 1.1 on page 61.


- increased locational flexibility in time and space.


-from a spatially fixed to a spatially dispersed assembly line


- is this the end of geography? no…


An increasingly complex and interdependent system


Global scale spatial separation of manufacturing operations.


- example the global car.


Increased global outsourcing of materials and components.


- what is meant by outsourcing?


Global production chains � the integration of production.


- just in time manufacturing on regional and global scales.


- note the dominance of TNCs in controlling these chains.


- borderless businesses and stateless organizations?


. Spatial Shifts in the Production of Goods and Services


Traditional Manufacturing Spaces


The G-7 and the OECD countries -- Western Europe, North America and Japan -- still


dominate global production with 80% of world manufacturing production by value. The U.S,


Japan and Germany account for 60%.


But the W.European and N.American shares have been declining the U.S. share declined


from 40% in 16 to 7% in 14.


This has resulted in the decline and abandonment of old industrial regions = rust belts. (


de-industrialization - see section 1.6 )


But also more recent manufacturing regions like Silicon Valley in California where the


computer industry first developed, have experienced decline as production moved offshore to


other regions.


New Economic Regions


- 160s rise of Japan, whose share of world manufacturing by value rose from 6% in 16 to


4% in 14.


The biggest shift has been to the Newly Industrial Countries (N.I.C.s)


- 160-80s South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong


- 180s early 0s Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, China.


- 10s to present Brazil, Mexico, Philippines, India, Eastern Europe


Overall we have seen the creation of new industrial zones and clusters of economic activity.


- new industrial spaces (p.p.68-70 in Human Geography)


. What Drives the Global Assembly Line ?


( Why are Nikes made in China ? - see box 1.6 )


Increased mobility of capital massive increase in foreign direct investment.


- see p.0 box 11.7 in the textbook.


The new and newer international divisions of labour.


- what is meant by division of labour?


- Nikes international subcontracting networks.


New technologies in materials and production systems.


- can you think of examples of new technologies which would influence the globalisation


of manufacturing?


Changing government policies.


- weakening labour laws (weakened safety net)


-the establishment of export production zones and maquiladoras.


- Transportation and trade, especially the move towards global free trade.


The Consumers World


( Read all of Chapter 14 in Human Geography )


Is there a geography of consumption?


Is there a global consumer culture?


How does consumerism relate to leisure and tourism?


__________________________________________


I. Consumer Society and Culture


The social production of false needs. A quote from Herbert Marcuses book


(164) One-Dimensional Man.


Marcuse believed that the products of consumer capitalism indoctrinate and


manipulate society to promote a false consciousness of needs which become a way


of life.


He saw this as another form of totalitarianism which binds consumers to producers


and uses the pleasures of consumer lifestyle as instruments of control and


domination.


Is this a profound threat to freedom and individuality?


Do you agree with Marcuses argument?


What arguments could you make against it?


II. The Geography of Consumerism


A. Local Consumer Spaces and Landscapes


- Consuming as a leisure activity.


- Your neighbourhood = living space = consumption space.


- Urban landscapes are consumed. How?


- The human geography of shopping malls


a) They are planned retail environments.


-developed, designed and managed as a single unit.


-tenancy and common areas are under private control.


-dominated by national and international retail chains.





b) Large suburban, planned malls emerged in the 160s.


-part of the private land development industry.


-synergy of developers and major retail chains.





c) The hollowing-out of many CBDs.


-especially along main streets of mid-sized towns.


-the major retail chain store moves to a suburban mall.





d) The privatization of public space.


-the internal space is built to encourage consumption.


-video cameras and guards = safety, but also monitoring


-operated for profit, not as an open space for gathering.


-the interaction of people is controlled.


B. Global Dispersal of Consumer Culture


Is there a global consumer culture?


( read the argument on pp. 407-414 of Human Geography )


What does indigenization mean?


How is it different from the concept homogenization?


The symbols of consumer culture may spread globally…


Coca-Cola, McDonalds, Microsoft, Marlboro, etc.


… but the meaning of these symbols changes in each new context. They may even


seem exotic.


Each symbol is incoporated into the local (indigenous) culture differently in


different places (at different times).


see the discussion of McDonalds on pp.411-41


If the values of the consumer society are becoming adopted in more and more places around the world…





…does this jeopardize the prospects for environmentally sustainable


development?


III. The Global Tourism Industry


Tourism, especially mass tourism is a good example of the globalization of


consumer culture in two ways


-it involves consumption by tourists of goods and services on a global scale (many


places in many countries).


-it plays a significant role in spreading the values and the material expressions of


consumer culture around the world.


A. The Rise of the Leisure Industry


The fastest growing sector of the global economy.


Sub-sectors include


Entertainment, shopping, fashion, travel, sports


Factors contributing to its emergence


growth of leisure time and expectations


increased real incomes


demographic and social change


changes in the nature of work


affluent retirement


the marketing of leisure


B. The Rise of Global Tourism


Increased demand for tourism…


emergence of leisure culture


escapism, desire to be elsewhere


desire for travel, to experience other places


education, to learn about other places


business travel


Increased supply of tourism opportunities…


transportation revolution


economic development policies


tour companies, travel agents


airlines and cruiselines


hotel and resort chains


travel credit plans - Air Miles


foreign direct investment in tourism


marketing of tourist destinations


C. Where Do the Tourists Go?


Dominance of W.Europe and N.America as both a source of tourists and a tourist


destination…


… however, the LDCs are increasingly popular.


Tourist visitors to the Caribbean


15 1.5million


165 .5 million


170 4.5 million


11 11.65 million (excluding cruise arrivals)


Since 185, this is an annual rate of increase of 7%, compared with the world average of


5.8%.


D. What are the Tourists Looking For?


The mass tourist experience


sun, sea and sand - the winter getaway, heliotropic landscape


entertainment - resorts, casinos


sports - golf, skiing, watersports


shopping


the complete package - enclaves, cruises


The selective experience scenery - the tourist gaze


history and heritage - the nostalgia industry


culture - art, architecture, folk tradition


environment - ecotourism


adventure - trekking, rafting


sex


E. Problems Associated With Tourism


The invasion syndrome.


Tourism as a questionable basis for development


a) economic concerns


-Appropriation of local business, property and employment to serve the needs of


tourists.


-Fabrication of a new, externally dependent sector that does not serve local needs.


-Exploitation of the local labour force with low wage, gender discrimination and


underemployment.


-Commodifying basic needs, e.g. supermarkets and fast-food.


b) environmental concerns


-Appropriating scenic areas, e.g. parks and coasts


-Fabricating tourist environments hotels, resorts, golf courses, theme parks =


reshaping the physical and cultural landscapes.


-Exploiting and degrading natural resources loss of agricultural land, coastal


erosion, animal habitat destruction, water depletion and pollution.


F. The Commodification of Nature


Ecotourism


Safari parks


Nature reserves


Is this a trend to be hopeful about? or is it an extension of past practices,


marketed in a new way?


Can tourism help to promote environmentally sustainable development?


Uneven Development, Marginalization and Poverty


• What is development?


• Why is it globally uneven?


• Does the Third World exist?


• What are the obstacles to sustainable and equitable development?


______________________________________________________________________________


I. The Meaning of Development


Evidence suggests that, despite recent increases in rates of global economic growth, the gap


between rich and poor countries, regions and people persists and even shows signs of


widening.


See 00 UN Report on the World Social Situation


http//www.un.org/esa/socdev/rwss/rwss00.htm


Canada, Income changes, 18-


Highest fifth +6.6% ($6,175)


Middle fifth - 1.0% ($44,01)


Lowest fifth - 5.% ($17,66)


In 18 the top 0% received $5.40 for every dollar that went to the bottom 0% = increase


from $4.80 in 14.


Global trends


Since 160, the start of the first United Nations Development Decade, disparities in global


wealth distribution have doubled.


By 1, wealthiest fifth of the world population controlled


86% of world income (GNP), 8% of world export markets,


68% of FDI, and 74% of the worlds phone lines.


The lowest fifth had 1% of world income.


In 160 the top 0% of countries had 0 times the average incomes of the poorest 0%.


By 15 this had risen to 8 times.


Increasing GDP in Latin America, but roughly same % living in poverty. A definition of development


Wealth is distributed throughout the population, is increasing faster than population growth, is


creating capital which is invested in infrastructure, both public and private, which stimulates


social and economic improvements.


Sustainable development


Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future


generations to meet their own needs. (UN Commission on Environment and Development,


184)


This embodies concepts of


• basic needs, and


• limitations on present and future carrying capacity of the environment, i.e. limits to growth.


II. Measurements of Disparity and Development


A. Financial


• Gross National (domestic) Product � crude and per capita.


What are the problems with this as a measure of wealth?


Overall GDP in any country may increase, but this masks disparities between regions, sectors,


families and individuals.


• Distribution of income and wealth


e.g. the Gini Coefficient of Disparity


0 = perfect equality


1= perfect inequality


If you’re particularly interested in the inequality issue go to this part of the World Bank


website


http//www.worldbank.org/poverty/inequal/index.htm


Gini coefficients Canada


18 total income 0.


after tax income 0.


14 total 0.4 (+1.4%)


after tax 0. (0%)


18 total 0.57 (+ 6.4%)


after tax 0.15 (+ 7.%)


Gini coefficients Mexico


184 total 0.41


14 total 0.54 (+11.8%)


Can you think of any weaknesses in this method of measuring income inequality?


What about looking at poverty levels?


For Canadian poverty rates, see the Canadian Council on Social Development website


http//www.ccsd.ca/facts.html


What are the problems of using poverty levels to measure disparities in levels of living?


For Developing countries we can use foreign debt ratio.


Measured as % of GDP � over 00% in poorest countries.


What are the limitations of using income levels and distributions as indicators of levels of


development?


B. Social


Education and literacy


-Ratio of teachers to students


-Percent who complete various grade levels


-Percent who can read and write


Health and Welfare


-Nutrition


-Infant Mortality


-Medical Services


Employment


-Unemployment levels


-Working conditions, e.g. child labour


C. Infrastructure


Sanitation, Roads, Housing, Telecommunications


e.g. Haiti average per capita income = $50 per annum,


cell phone=$550 plus $0/month.


OECD countries have 16% of the world population but 1% of the internet users.


D. United Nations Human Development Index


Combines several measures of development


- Life expectancy at birth


- Adjusted GDP/capita


- Knowledge (literacy and education)


III. Concentrations of Wealth and Spreads of Poverty


• Structural


- concentrations of wealth in high tech industry; spreads of poverty in agriculture.


- concentrations of wealth in the hands of owners of capital and investors; spreads of


poverty amongst workers.





• Urban/rural


- metropolitan affluence, rural poverty


• Cores and Peripheries


- wealth at the centre, poverty around the edges


• Marginal Regions and Places


- the places left behind


- degraded environments


IV. Defining the Spaces of Development


(( Read pp. 75-7 in the Human Geography textbook ))


There are problems with the concept the Third World.


The arbitrariness of the North-South division - The Brandt Line.


The idea of two distinct worlds -- developed and underdeveloped -- is based on neo-colonial


attitudes and western values of development.


Are these concepts out-dated now because of globalization?


V. Theories of Development


(( Read pp. 80-8 in the Human Geography textbook ))


schools of thought (paradigms)


Modernization theory and Dependency theory


What are the main differences between these schools of thought ?


Which approach would you support and why?


VI. Globalization and Uneven Development


•Development occurs wherever investment yields the highest return.


•Capital is invested unevenly in time and space.


•Wealth concentrates in major capital centres the world cities.


As a result, flexibility of the system on a global scale in time and space causes shifts in


locations of development.


VII. Conclusion


How do the main elements of globalization that we have studied in the course cause uneven


development and increased disparity?


The Global Supermarket


e.g.


declining farm incomes


shift from local food production to export production


Global Assembly Line e.g.


maquiladoras and sweatshops


economic power of TNCs


Global Tourism


e.g.


dependency on foreign investment


vulnerability to global economic conditions


labour exploitation


The New World Order


e.g.


World Bank and IMF structural adjustment programmes and debt.


Free trade (WTO) and downward harmonization


Power of G-7


The New World Order


( read pp.444-45 and Chapter 16 in Human Geography )


Is there a new world order?


What are its main institutions?


Who controls it?


What are its underlying ideologies?


___________________________________________


U.S. President George Bush, Sr. - Sept.17, 10


Out of these troubled times… a new world order can emerge; a new era


- free from the threat of terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice, and


more secure in the quest for peace; an era in which the nations of the


world, east and West, North and South, can prosper and live in


harmony.


I. Geography of the Cold War, 14-18


( read pp.444-448 in the textbook )


Capitalist West vs. Communist East


U.S.A. vs. U.S.S.R.


Contrasting socio-economic systems private vs. public ownership of the means of


production.


Global scale nuclear military stand-off


Mutually Assured Destruction (M.A.D.)


The Iron Curtain in Europe


… therefore a cold war between superpowers


But… also, hot zones of containment


These are located in the rd World


Examples Korea, Cuba, Vietnam


… the domino effect metaphor of geo-politics


II. A New Global Political Economy


18 Collapse of the Soviet Bloc, end of the Cold War


New power relations one superpower (the U.S.A. and its satellites - N.A.T.O.


and the U.N.)


Breakdown of the last barriers to the global economy


now there is more and freer international commerce


shifts in trade patterns - U.S.A. is the worlds market


But… does the Cold War continue in Asia? ( see p.450 )


III. Institutions of the New World Order


A. Dominance of Nation-States


Issues of sovereignty and independence.


How are nations perceived/imagined?


- race, religion


- they identify a common history


- they represent an ideal social form


Are there nations without (place) states?


( see Box 16.1 on p.457 )


B. Sub-State Threats to this Dominance


Nationalist movements ( see Box 16. on p.464 )


Ethno-religious factionalism


Decline of central planning and state intervention


Privatisation of public institutions


De-regulation of free enterprise


C. Supra-State Threats


Political institutions and relations NATO, UN, EU





Economic institutions and activities


World Bank and I.M.F., World Trade Org.,


N.A.F.T.A., O.E.C.D., O.P.E.C., TNCs…


The global media


C.N.N., B.B.C., Al-Jazeera…


International non-governmental organisations


Greenpeace, Amnesty Intl., labour unions…


IV. Control of the New World Order


A. The Establishment


Trans-national corporations


Nation-states working together


G-8, E.U., U.N. Security Council


Financial institutions, investor organizations


The U.S. military


Technological dominance


Why attack Iraq


B. The Anti-Establishment


NGOs environmental, human rights, anti-poverty


The anti-globalization movement


Anarchists, union members, feminists…


Seattle, Quebec City fence, Montreal…


Canadians N. Klein, M. Barlow, J. Singh…


V. The Underlying Ideologies in Conflict


Neo-liberal the global free market, wealth trickles


Social democratic interdependence


Marxist global capitalism vs. international socialism


AlsoGreen the global commons, universal stewardship


(true) Anarchist smaller communities are better


Self-determination and human rights, respect diversity


Is there a Cyber-ideology? ...freedom of information


Is there really a clash of civilizations?





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