Friday, August 17, 2012

PED for Lightbulbs

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This report has been produced to analyse the possible implications of increasing the price of our 100Watt light bulbs by 0%. Presently the cost of a light bulb is £0.80. This report will aim to fully assess and evaluate the price elasticity of demand of the product, which will enable an informed decision to be made on whether a price increase will be financially viable for the company.

Concept of price elasticity

The concept of price elasticity of demand (PED) is to measure the responsiveness of the quantity demanded to a price increase or decrease, with all other factors remaining the same. This is achieved by comparing the percentage change of the price of a product, in relation to the percentage change in demand for that product, and is calculated as follows,

PED (price elasticity of demand) = Percentage change in the quantity demanded

Percentage change in the price

The determining factor in the above calculation depends on whether the PED is above or below 1. The price elasticity of demand can be split into three different categories once the above calculation is completed

Price Elastic

If a product is deemed to be price elastic, the calculation will reveal that the PED is greater than 1, this shows that the percentage change in quantity demanded is greater than the % change in price.

Price Inelastic

If the price is inelastic, the calculation will reveal that the PED is less than 1 indicating that the percentage change in price is greater than the percentage change in quantity demanded.

Unitary elasticity

If the price is classed as unitary elasticity, the PED calculation will work out at exactly 1. This shows that percentage change in price is equal to the percentage change in quantity demanded.

The relevance of PED to pricing decisions

The price elasticity of demand is a very helpful tool in deciding how to price a product, as there is a direct link between price elasticity and revenue. If a product is price elastic it is susceptible to price change, this means that increases in price will have a negative effect on total revenue. Conversely, if the price is inelastic this indicates that there is a positive relationship between elasticity and revenue and the product is not particularly susceptible to price change, therefore if there is an increase in price there will be an increase in revenue. It can be seen that all firms aim to achieve an inelastic price of demand, because they can then increase their prices knowing that the customers will still be willing to purchase the product. This ties in with competitive advantage, meaning that once you are a market leader you can control prices to a certain degree.

Factors of demand for 100watt light bulbs

It is important to look at what factors may affect the demand for 100Watt light bulbs. Looking firstly at price

Price of our light bulbs

Last year a survey was carried out to assess the sensitivity of sales to price for our 100watt light bulbs, the results were as follows,

Price Sales (Million) Revenue (Million) % Change in price % Change in Sales

£0.80 5800 4640 5% 1.0%

£1.00 4000 4000

If we then apply these results to the aforementioned equation for PED,

PED = % Change in QD 1.0 = 1.4

%Change in P 5

It can be clearly see from the calculation above that the demand for 100Watt light bulbs is elastic, and therefore sensitive to price change.

The price of other companies light bulbs

Another factor in determining the demand for light bulbs may be the price of our competitor’s products. We have already seen from the calculation above that the price is elastic. If another company making light bulbs offers consumers a lower price, or a better deal i.e. a two for one offer, we may find that demand for our product falls. Consumers may be unwilling to pay more for an identical product they can find cheaper elsewhere.

Availability of substitute products

Availability of substitute products may also play a part in the demand for 100watt light bulbs. It can be seen that over recent years the availability of energy saving light bulbs such as Incandescent and Halogen Light Bulbs are on the increase. These bulbs can last many times longer than a standard light bulb. Prices of these substitutes are currently high in comparison to standard 100W bulbs but may fall as the country and government strives to become more energy efficient, this may have a direct effect on the demand for our product. Conover (February 5, 00)


The above graph has been plotted to assess whether there should be a rise of 0% to the price of the companies light bulbs. It can be clearly seen from the graph that an increase of 0% would add and extra £0.16 of revenue per bulb sold, however the price rise also causes a loss in demand from 5800Million to 4400Million. The table below shows the predicted subsequent effect on revenue,

Price Sales (Million) Revenue (Million) % Change in price

£0.80 5800 4640 0%

£0.6 4400 44

Taking into consideration the earlier finding that the price of light bulbs is elastic, meaning any price rise will reduce demand, and the findings of the graph which indicates that a 0% increase in price would result in a predicted £416,000 of lost revenue, it is recommended that the price should not be raised.


Conover, C February 5, 00 ‘Light bulbs, Floodlights and Spotlights which bulbs to use? An extremely brief and incomplete tutorial and review’, Available from

http// (Accessed 1/11/00)

Worthington, I. & Britton, C, 00. The business environment. 4th Ed. Harlow Pearson Education.

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