Thursday, September 27, 2012


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The electronic security industry can be described as the use of electronic coding and software programming for the creation of exclusive systems for security purposes. Today, information technology has created a “border-less world” with concepts such as the global network spearheading the way. The global connectivity offers a vast array of new possibilities to the users who have to be certain that personal information will not be misused. Therefore, privacy and authenticity would naturally be the two key concerns of the global network users. The solution to these issues is based on the science of cryptography where data encryption and digital signatures guarantee confidentiality and integrity. The technology then manifests itself to the user through smart cards applications. Smart cards form a platform from which providers are able to offer new services, enhancing payment or identification systems. This system provides added benefits to the users as the information can be tailored to the needs of the individual holder. Another facet of the electronic security system is the provision of hardware security equipment that we have been familiar with. This includes electrical equipment such as electronic safes, home alarm systems, fire alarm systems and others.

.1 Smart cards

Smart cards are secure and compact data carriers that are capable of processing, storing and safeguarding thousands of bytes of data. Smart cards with electrical contacts have a thin metallic plate just above the centre line on one side of the card. Beneath this plate is an integrated circuit (“IC”) chip containing a central processing unit (“CPU”), random access memory (“RAM”) and non-volatile data storage. Data stored in the smart cards microchip can be accessed only through the chip operating system (“COS”), providing a high level of data security. This security takes the form of passwords that allow users to access parts of the IC chips memory or encryption/decryption measures that translate the bytes stored in memory into information.

A smart card begins with a micro-controller produced by semiconductor manufacturers such as Siemens Inc., Motorola Inc. and Thomson Inc.. This integrated circuit chip is attached to an electronic module by inserting into a cavity on the module. Then, terminals between the chip and the electronic module are interconnected. Finally, the chip-embedded electronic module is glued to a plastic card.

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. Smart Card Readers

Smart cards can be applied for electronic commerce, financial services, government, corporations, loyalty program services, network and Internet security, PC security, software copy protection and other varied applications. These applications are dependent on the ability to make a computer and a smart card communicator. Therefore, the smart cards are placed in a smart card reader, which is connected to the computer. Smart cards may be read by conventional card reader or by wireless terminals. New devices similar to a floppy disk allow smart cards to be read by PC disk drive.

Smart card readers are designed to read the magnetic stripe data on all chip card platforms. The application solutions normally come fully equipped with both standardised and certified hardware and software and are compliant with protocols for secured electronic commerce.

It can be summarised that the necessary requirements for the creation of smart cards applications are as follows-

§ A computer with application software that is able to generate commands for card reader, cards and the data recorded in the cards;

§ Smart cards as the physical item for execution and storing information;

§ A smart card reader that possesses the appropriate protocol to read the stored information; and

§ Data encryption and compression. This may be performed in the software, the card reader or the card itself.

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