Tuesday, April 30, 2013

I am lucky!

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I can be considered lucky because I have almost fallen off a cliff, got chased out into oncoming traffic, fell out of a 50 foot bush, and jumped out of a moving car and still survived. Out off all those incidents I never got hit or near death. I also came out with only nd degree cuts and burns also. Many of those times I came close to getting seriously hurt or killed. None of those times though I got anything broken or needed stitches.


I am lucky because I survived almost falling off a cliff. My sister, Billy, and I decided to go slide down the cliff to swim. So we walked down to the area, we had noticed it said no trespassing, because it was dangerous. We went anyways and as usual we slid down the cliff. We got bored and decided to walk around the top of it. So we were walking around it and all of a sudden I slipped and started falling. My sister noticed and said hold on I will go get Billy.


So she went to go get Billy while I was hanging off the side. At the time I was only 8 and weighed very little, so when I slipped and caught a hold of a piece of weed sticking out of the ground it held me. So there I was dangling over the cliff. My palms were sweating so I couldn’t grip the weed very well. I waited there for five minutes but it felt like an eternity.


I looked down and there was nothing but green trees sticking up like little spikes. I started to slip because the weed had broken. Slowly like an antagonize dream I started to slip. I yelled for help. I managed to catch the edge nothing left but air around me. One hand slipped my heart pounding. I tried to yell for help again but I lost my voice. Suddenly I heard Billy. “Were is he Deidre,” he asked. She broke out in tears yelling “I don’t know I don’t know.” I managed to yell help.” Just as I let go of the side he grabbed my arm. He pulled me up making sure not to let go.


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In addition to surviving almost falling off a cliff I am lucky because I didn’t get hit when I was chased into oncoming traffic. When I was ten I went with my cousin Nicole to watch my sister fight another girl. I had just come back from playing baseball with Nicole. As I watched my sister beat up the girl, the girl’s boyfriend showed up with his friends. After the fight the boys went after my sister and hit her. I didn’t know what to do, so I took my baseball bat and started swinging at their heads like they bop its. I beat them up with the baseball bat, then one of them managed to get it.





I saw them get up, and I ran. My cousin Nicole took down two of them. I took one of there bikes and started to ride it. They came out in front of me and I pulled the bike into traffic. I got up to the light and stopped but they were right behind me. So I took a chance and raced across almost getting hit at least 10 times. I rode for a mile down the street, and stopped at a Kroger’s. They seen me and I got chased around the store. Then I took the bike and once more got chased into traffic. A police officer saw them and got his car and chased them down.


I took the bike and dropped it right there on the in them middle of the main road. I ran back to where Nicole and Deidre were. They had left, and so had the people that got beat up. I walked home and saw them their. And told them what had happened. We all had a good laugh and went on.


Besides not getting hit when I was chased into oncoming traffic I survived a fifty-foot drop. I was climbing a bush that had grown as tall as a tree. My sister, my cousin Brittany, and I were climbing a tree. They always were able to get close to the top. So I decided I would climb to the top. They went into get a drink. Before they got in I stuck my head through the top and yelled, “ Hey I made it.” They laughed and walked in. As I climbed down a branch broke and I started falling headfirst. I had my hands extended and yelling as the wind rushed through my body.


As I started to fall I managed to get half way turned around. I hit a branch knocking the air out of me. It had felt as if someone took a slug hammer and hit me in the stomach. I had turned back to my feet. I hit the last branch breaking it. It took me a second to get my breath back. My back was all scratched up and bleeding. I crawl my way inside. Yelling for my grandma. She sees me on the floor bleeding. She picks me up and carries me up the stairs. She pores peroxide on it. It burns at first. But then I get better. I put my shirt back on and go back and play.


After falling out of a tree I am still lucky because I jumped out of a moving car. It was 10 at night. And I wanted to go back to the vocation house. But it was down the street and I didn’t want to walk. Some people my sister had met offered to give me a ride home. So I got in the car. Not know the driver was high or drunk.


They pulled out and hit the curb. Right then I knew there was something wrong and I said I wanted out. They said relax we will be there in a second. I thought about it and decided I should get out. By the time I realized it they were making there way around a tree surrounded by concrete. I figured if I was going to go it was now or never. So I opened the car door and jumped.


Since the car door was open it got smashed when it hit the tree. They hit the curb and thought they had ran over me. I was lying on the ground laying in blood because I rolled through rocks at 0 mph. I stood up, Soaked in blood. At first no one could see me because the car was blocking their view.


My sister though I was hit and open the passenger side beating the heck out of the driver. I walked around numb at first from shock. She said I needed to get home. She couldn’t go with me because she was scared what would happen to her if she were there with me when I walked in. So I walked and in five minutes the pain kicked in.


I crawled the rest of the way. I walked in and my grandma grabbed me and ran me up stairs. Rinsing the blood off me it wasn’t as bad as it had appeared. I had two big scraps on my shoulders, elbows, knees, and hands. Then next day I went with my brother and we played out in the ocean. The salt water burned like alcohol. But it helped by cleaning and scabbing it. I still have the scar on my right shoulder from it. And that’s why I consider myself to be lucky.





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Monday, April 22, 2013

Gilgamesh

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To cheat death is to cheat god to cheat god is to prove to be supreme and more powerful than god. The image of an everlasting youthful life is one that humans toy with. The fantasy whets the appetite of any person eager to achieve eternality. Human beings are not gods; human beings inevitably encounter death and lose the game of immortality. The Epic of Gilgamesh narrates the story of the naïve human being who thought that if clever enough, could prove to be one of the few who conquered death.


This heroic poem is named for its hero, Gilgamesh, a tyrannical Babylonian king who ruled the city of Uruk. According to the myth, the gods respond to the prayers of the oppressed citizenry of Uruk and send a wild, brutish man, Enkidu, to challenge Gilgamesh to a wrestling match. When the contest ends with neither as a clear victor, Gilgamesh and Enkidu become close friends. They journey together and share many adventures. Accounts of their heroism and bravery in slaying dangerous beasts spread to many lands. When the two travelers return to Uruk, Ishtar (guardian deity of the city) proclaims her love for the heroic Gilgamesh. When he rejects her, she sends the Bull of Heaven to destroy the city. Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill the bull, and, as punishment for his participation, the gods doom Enkidu to die.


After Enkidus death, Gilgamesh seeks out the wise man Utnapishtim to learn the secret of immortality. The sage recounts to Gilgamesh a story of a great flood (the details of which are so remarkably similar to later biblical accounts of the flood that scholars have taken great interest in this story). After much hesitation, Utnapishtim reveals to Gilgamesh that a plant bestowing eternal youth is in the sea. Gilgamesh dives into the water and finds the plant but later loses it to a serpent and, disconsolate, returns to Uruk to end his days. The Ninevite version of the epic begins with a prologue in praise of Gilgamesh, part divine and part human, the great builder and warrior, knower of all things on land and sea. In order to curb Gilgameshs seemingly harsh rule, the god Anu caused the creation of Enkidu, a wild man who at first lived among animals. Soon, however, Enkidu was initiated into the ways of city life and traveled to Uruk, where Gilgamesh awaited him. Tablet II describes a trial of strength between the two men in which Gilgamesh was the victor; thereafter, Enkidu was the friend and companion (in Sumerian texts, the servant) of Gilgamesh. In Tablets III-V the two men set out together against Huwawa (Humbaba), the divinely appointed guardian of a remote cedar forest, but the rest of the engagement is not recorded in the surviving fragments. In Tablet VI Gilgamesh, who had returned to Uruk, rejected the marriage proposal of Ishtar, the goddess of love, and then, with Enkidus aid, killed the divine bull that she had sent to destroy him. Tablet VII begins with Enkidus account of a dream in which the gods Anu, Ea, and Shamash decided that he must die for slaying the bull. Enkidu then fell ill and dreamed of the house of dust that awaited him. Gilgameshs lament for his friend and the state funeral of Enkidu are narrated in Tablet VIII. Afterward, Gilgamesh made a dangerous journey (Tablets IX and X) in search of Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Babylonian flood, in order to learn from him how to escape death. He finally reached Utnapishtim, who told him the story of the flood and showed him where to find a plant that would renew youth (Tablet XI). But after Gilgamesh obtained the plant, it was seized by a serpent, and Gilgamesh unhappily returned to Uruk. An appendage to the epic, Tablet XII, related the loss of objects called (perhaps drum and drumstick) given to Gilgamesh by Ishtar. The epic ends with the return of the spirit of Enkidu, who promised to recover the objects and then gave a grim report on the underworld. Beowulf is an Anglo-Saxon epic poem, the most important work of Old English literature. The earliest surviving manuscript is in the British Library; it is written in the West Saxon dialect and is believed to date from the late 10th century.


One is not controlled by destiny but rather is a culmination of one’s decisions and consequences. One can not blame ones own’s unfortunate circumstances because of an inevitable fate. Fate was produced by choices and the paths one decided to embark. Gilgamesh exemplifies.


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Tuesday, April 16, 2013

Humanities need to have luxeries

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New equipment and products are being manufactured every day, many of which are contributing to the destruction of our environment. There are many ways in which our society could reduce the damage to our environment, but our desire for comforts and luxuries is too great. Cars pollute the air, generating electricity creates harmful fumes, and chemicals in many products are destroying the ozone layer. Our craving for comforts as demonstrated in our overuse of cars and electricity is leading to the destruction of the ozone layer, and is not only hurting our families but also other species and the environment in which we live.


Cars contribute greatly to the pollution of our world and we should be looking for energy efficient forms of transportation. It has been etched into our minds that cars are a necessity in life, but this mode of transportation is destroying our world. The environment would greatly benefit if we walked, biked, or car-pooled more often. Studies show that our personal transportation generates 6% of the world’s pollution problems, creating contaminated water, air pollution, and greenhouse gases. The polluted water harms aquatic species, and greenhouse gases are slowing changing weather patterns which affect crops and species in all geographical areas. If people do not realize soon how our cars are affecting our environment, it may be too late to repair the problems.


Our large demand for electricity is another comfort that harms our environment. It is used for many luxuries in our homes, such as lights, air conditioners, and washing equipment. The plants that generate electricity work twenty-four hours a day and seven days a week to produce electricity for our busy and technological based lives. Pollution from coal energy plants cause acid rain and global warming, while nuclear power plants create hazardous waste that pollutes lakes and harms the environment. We need to start using less electricity, and find a better way of conserving it before our sky is filled with smog and our crops are ruined by acid rain.


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The third problem being created by our luxuries and comforts is the destruction of our ozone layer. The ozone layer protects us from the sun’s harmful rays, and without it, almost all life on earth would perish. This thin layer of atmosphere is very easily damaged, and the products we use everyday are creating harmful holes in it. Items we use today like refrigerators, air conditioners, and some plastics contain chemicals that when released into the atmosphere slowly wear down the ozone layer. Holes in the ozone effect plant life, and harm humans and animals. Our ozone layer is essential to our being, and we need to stop using unessential things that harm it.


In conclusion, our luxuries and comforts are contributing to the destruction of our environment. Our cars create greenhouse gases, we over use electricity, and unnecessary chemicals are damaging the ozone layer. We need to realize quickly what our technology is doing to our surroundings, and eliminate unneeded pollution and chemicals by changing the way we live our lives.














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Sunday, April 14, 2013

Is Henry V an anti-war play

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Henry V


Is Henry V an anti-war play?


You could refer in your answer to the Olivier and Branagh films and the contexts in which they were produced, as well as the context of the play’s original composition.


At the time when Shakespeare wrote Henry V Queen Elizabeth was the country’s monarch and the nation had just witnessed England defeat the Spanish Armada and become the world’s strongest naval power. Therefore the 16th Century and original perception of the play is that it’s celebrating England’s supremacy in battle and shows this again by the production of Henry V and England’s victory over the much stronger French. It’s unifying the country through war and celebrating the country’s pride. Henry V was also related to Elizabeth, so it’s not only a celebration to the country but also to the Queen and her deceased relative.


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Throughout the play there is a strong sense of patriotism, not only from Henry V and the battle that lies ahead and the fight for the country but more importantly and significantly the patriotism of the troops and their love for him. Part of this can be accounted for the some of the troops relationship with the then Prince Hal in Shakespeare’s Henry IV. This makes their battle more personalised, they’re not just fighting for the King of England but for the King of England who used to have a drink with them in their local pub. This means that for the play Shakespeare shows a sense of admiration and awe that the troops have for Henry as he was once one of them, and now he’s standing side by side with them ready to fight the battle.


‘The Kings a bawcock, and a heart of gold,


A lad of life, an imp of fame;


Of parents good, of fist most valiant.


I kiss his dirty shoe, and from heartstring


I love the lovely bully


(Pistol IV.1 lines 44-48)


There is then of course great patriotism from Henry and in particular in many of his long speeches which take up one third of all the written text. Shakespeare’s aim was to glorify Henry as in the shows first production there was Queen Elizabeth in the audience. Again after the defeat of the Spanish Armada the nation would have been in a very patriotic mood and this is expressed in the text by Shakespeare. Henry’s speeches are most significant for the fact of him being able to rally his troops ready for battle; they’re very complex in their nature and use numerous animal metaphors and rhetorical questions to get his intensity and passion for war over to the audience. Quite importantly Henry identifies with his troops, showing he is a man and not just a king and this identification with the troops gives the play a huge feel of self belief and patriotism.


‘We few, we happy few, we band of brothers


For he today that sheds his blood with me


Shall be my brother’


(Henry IV. lines 60-6)


In this particular speech Henry uses ‘we’ three times, each time with it meaning more and it shows the brotherhood of war, that they’re in this together, will fight together and die together. Henry is glorified through his speeches in particular by Shakespeare. This show of glory shows how the audience can interpret the play as a pro-war production with the King of England fighting along side his people for the good of his people. Shakespeare also evokes a great sense of honour from Henry and this is particularly important with how Henry’s made his claim to the French throne through the Salic law. His fight for this and the fact that he truly believes his claim is just, and is willing to sacrifice his life for the cause shows emphatically that from this view point the production must be seen as a pro-war one. References to God also appear quite often, this emphasises that the cause for war is just and by using the Lord’s name its how Henry believes he’s fighting alongside him.


‘Follow your spirit and upon this charge


Cry, ‘God for Harry, England, and Saint George!’


There is also the only instance in the play where Henry is alone, and this is his Soliloquy when Henry’s at his lowest ebb. (IV. 1 lines 18-77.) His prayer to God I feel can be interoperated in two ways. He asks for his help because he needs it, the French are stronger than him and this can be seen as a pro-war or anti-war message. Pro-war as he’s asking God for help on the battle field and his men isn’t as strong as the French. Or anti-war as he needs the help of God which could show that war isn’t justified and he maybe doubting his claim and is looking to God for answers and if he wins the battle that will be the answer that God was on his side, but what’s the price he’ll have to pay?


Henry V has been adapted to the big screen on two occasions with each of these being different from the other, respectively. There was the Lawrence Olivier version produced as anti-Nazi propaganda which its effect was said to be ‘Stiffened our sinews, summoned up our blood and gave us the determination to bash Hitler’. It was used to raise the moral of troops is the Second World War by showing the strength of the English when faced in battle. The second production was directed by Kenneth Branagh and this had an anti-war message to it. Still fresh in peoples minds were both the Vietnam and Falklands war and Branagh went about showing how horrific war can be. Olivier left out completely the traitor’s scene with Cambridge, Scroop and Grey as this was a particular anti-war message of mistrust and treachery by those very close to the king. Branagh tackles the situation in a very emotional style, with tears in his eyes and a great deal of sadness of what his close friend Scroop had done to him.


‘What shall I say to thee, Lord Scroop, thou cruel,


Ingrateful savage, and inhuman creature?


Thou that dids bear the key of all my councels,


That knews’t the very bottom of my soul’


(Henry V II. lines 4-7)


This was further more shown in the Warwick Arts Centre production in which the audience could really feel the pain Henry was suffering when he confronted Scroop and it really gave the sense of the bitter side of war and how one can be betrayed through the greed of wealth.


The play by Shakespeare also portrays the gruesome side of war and this can be seen distinctly as an anti-war message. Over time the original interpretation of the play may have changed due to world events and the 1st Century’s point of view may be that of anti-war. The scene at the siege of Harfleur (III.) portrays a very anti-war message with the manner of Henry’s speech. ‘If your pure maidens fall into the hand/ Of hot and forcing violation? And, ‘Your naked infants spitted upon pikes/ Whiles the mad mothers with their howls confused’. This shows the darker side of Henry and is at the other end of the spectrum compared to his morale boosting Band of Brothers speech. This part of the speech is left out in the Olivier version but shown to its full effect in Branagh’s screen play. It’s very much an anti-war message as it shows the gruesomeness of war and what it can do to the innocent peoples involved. What I feel is a strong anti-war message is when the battle’s over and the death toll is read to Henry. Where there are ten thousand French dead yet only twenty-five English dead. But with the French soldiers it’s the amount of nobles that have died, including people that have appeared in the play like the High Constable of France. This leaves a bitter taste as it shows the price of war with so many men of high quality lying slain in the field. But it could be interoperated as pro-war for the English as not as many have died and only a few nobles, nothing compared to the numbers of French.


Finally when the play comes to the end there is the Epilogue which was wrote in the form of a sonnet and tells of what happened after the victory at Agincourt, which has a strong anti-war message to it. Henry V dies and he leaves it to his son, Henry VI, who then lost France through bad management of his estate.


‘Whose state so many had a managing


That they lost France, and made his England bleed’


The Epilogue I feel has an anti-war message to it because it shows how everything was lost after the soldiers and Henry’s brave battles. It was what Henry believed in and he eventually lost his life to it only for it to be lost within months of his death.


So is Henry V an anti-war play, originally when Shakespeare wrote it but over time this perception has changed with different interpretations and ways to view it with different contexts in mind.





Word count 150 with quotes.








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Saturday, February 23, 2013

How much does the character of Gertrude Lodge change as the story unfolds?

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Gertrude Lodge is one of the main characters in the ‘Withered Arm’ and as the story unfolds her character changes dramatically. We see Gertrude change from a kind, loving, beautiful lady, to a suspicious, deceitful, desperate, bitter women.


She enters the story as the nineteen-year-old bride of Farmer Lodge. Although little more than a girl, Gertrude is mature and ‘a lady complete,’ and immediately on her arrival in the village sets about the duties of the bosses wife by bringing gifts to the poorer people in the parish. She is, however, timid by nature, and has a natural shyness, as is shown by the ordeal of her first public appearance in church.


At the beginning of the story, Gertrude is a well-presented lady with a future of prosperity ahead of her. She is well educated and of a well spoken family. She is very pretty; ‘her face too fresh in colour, but it was of totally different quality � soft and evanescent, like the light under a heap of rose petals.’ She is young, ‘her hair is lightish, and her face as comely as a live doll’s.’


Rhoda, one of the milkers, is very fond of Farmer Lodge. She had his son, and uses him to find out more about his wife, Gertrude. One night, Rhoda has a nightmare. She dreams about Gertrude being dressed in fine clothes but looking ugly, old and demonised. She comes to mock Rhoda. Gertrude’s apparition almost suffocates her, and Rhoda is forced to throw her to the ground. Rhoda awakes thinking that everything she dreamt was real. This dream of Rhoda’s is what changes Gertrude for the worst, as we see a massive change from the loving character se once was to a bitter, somewhat evil women. However, Gertrude change is not instant. It unfolds throughout the story.


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Gertrude is known to be a very kind and helpful women towards Rhoda’s son. She visits them at the small cottage isolated in the woods, out of kindness to give the boy some new shoes. ‘In her Basket Mrs. Lodge brought the pair of boots that she had promised to the boy, and other useful artiles.’ When Rhoda meets Gertrude, she responds readily to her ‘sweet voice and winning glance’ and quickly forms a good relationship with her, which limits on affection. They become close and create a strong relationship. Rhoda is astonished at how kind Gertrude is. Gertrude continues to visit them everyday portraying her affection and kindness.


One day, Gertrude finds a strange occurrence on her arm. It begins to become withered and old looking. When the blight first appears on her arm Gertrudes enlightened and educated mind accepts it as a natural misfortune. Although blessed with good looks she is not vain, for she confides to Rhoda that she herself ‘does not much mind it.’ But she does mind the effect that she thinks it has on Farmer Lodge. When Rhonda sees her arm, he dream comes backs to her. Gertrude also sees that Farmer Lodge’s attitude towards her is changing, as his affection is not as deep. This does not help Gertrude overcome her troubles, it just makes them worse. Her attention from trying to help others and being a carefree lady changes to the obsession of her withered arm. When the suggestion to visit Conjurer Trendle is first made, Gertrude rejects the idea out of hand as superstitious nonsense. During the following five years Gertrude’s interest in her arm declines into a fixation, and she becomes ‘irritable and superstitious,’ seeking a cure in the wildest of remedies from herbs to black magic. Her pursuit of a cure leads to considerable single-mindedness and a strength of purpose.


Her attitude changes so much towards addressing everyone that she becomes a one women force, learning that she is unable to trust anyone. She is astute enough to realise that personal appearance is very important to her husband and she begins to fear losing his love. Her suspicion grows inside when she sees all the possible doctors there are, and her arm is still not cured, instead the conditions worsens. This brings out the desperation in her and she builds up a lot of anger in herself. She then asks Rhoda to guide her to Conjuror Trendle, whom she had first rejected. He has supernatural powers of ‘white wizard’, she believes that he is able to cure this act of witchcraft that is upon her. She goes to see him and he is able to show her the face that did this and to tell her that this injury does not have a physical cause. When she sees the face she emerges pale and shaken, looking older. This face changes the manner in which she shows towards Rhoda, each of them becoming more distant and bitter.


We can see that this change in character has occurred after seeing this face in the egg white. Gertrude becomes bitter and twisted seeing that Farmer Lodge’s interest in her has changed dramatically. This makes Gertrude more and more desperate to find a cure. She starts to lose all power in her arm this forcing her to return back to Trendall.


She goes again to Trendall showing her obsession with magic has deepened and that all her care is focused towards the curing of her arm. Trendall say’s that seeming that nothing has worked the only thing possible to do is to touch a dead man who has been hung. She portrays herself as being able to do anything if it will cure her arm. The change in her character this far is terrible already and worse is to come.


An encounter which proves altogether too much for her delicate vitality. Gertrudes unfortunate but natural affliction becomes, for Rhoda, a source of guilt fed by superstition and her own unhappiness. Gertrudes fear of losing Lodges love displaces her natural reason and deteriorates into an obsession.


Although she loves her husband, Gertrude is distanced from him by age and her irrational fears, and is unable to discuss the misery of her affliction calmly with him. She is tortured by the belief that the disappearance of the blight from the arm will re-generate her husbands interest in her, and she summons up all of her dwindling strength to face the awful contact with the freshly hanged corpse.


She is so desperate for a cure that she begins to wish for the death of someone. Here we can see she is portraying the evil side of her conscience, we see that she has got to the point where she is on the brink of committing suicide.


Finally when she hears about the death of someone in the village of Casterbridge and that her husband is leaving on a business trip, she sees the time is right, and once Farmer Lodge leaves, she set off too. When she arrives in the village of Casterbridge, she books into an inn and then out of pure desire she rushes to the ‘Hangman’s’ cottage to speak to the hangman known as Davies.


After discussions, he allows her to touch the body of the soon to be dead eighteen year old male the next day at a small fee. Once they agree that she can touch the body, she is relieved and knows all that awaits her is to touch the man and be cured.


The following day the young man is hung and he is brought to the back of the prison where Davies allows Gertrude to touch the body. As she touches him, she then looks at her arm and sees that it is cured. With great relief all her anxiety, desperation has gone.





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Sunday, February 10, 2013

Gender

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Images in advertising are often geared towards a male audience with females being objectified as powerless, passive, and the subject of male gaze. The image I have chosen personifies females with characteristics of weakness and gives the male viewer a feeling of power. Also, the females in the image are provocatively dressed and are portrayed as powerless and falling over a male who not only has the car, but the money to purchase the after-market items for it. The focus will be directed mainly on the role of advertising institutions in shaping the male subject and it’s objectification of females in the images they produce.


Large institutions need to advertise their products in order to sell and realize profit. Before looking at the subject of female objectification, we must look at advertising, and it’s use of images in creating the “spectator”(Sturken and Cartwright,001,pp.7). “The spectator is a subject which has his/her ideology shaped and constructed through ideology”(Sturken and Cartwright,001,pp.74). My image focuses on the male subject and how the image in the advertisement focuses mainly on attracting the attention of the male and shaping their minds. In most cases, advertisement follows “discourses”(Sturken and Cartwright, 001, pp.???) present in today’s society which is geared towards the male viewer and less towards satisfying the female viewer. Advertisers shape and construct the minds of males to think that females have less power than they do, and they do this through the way they present these images.


The spectator is given the power to “gaze”(Sturken and Cartwright, 001, pp.76)at the image, and in this case, the male subject is the one instilled with this power. The females in the image are put in positions were they show no power and are placed in negative stereotypical roles. “The women are the objects of the male gaze, and their returning looks are accorded no power in the image.”(Sturken and Cartwright, 001, pp.0). The females in the image are in provocative clothing and are in a position of frailty. The male viewer sees this and feels a sense of power, they have the ability to look at these women and fascinate and dream about them without being scrutinized. Males are given the “gaze” of power and the females are the ones being gazed at. Today’s contemporary advertising focuses on gender codes in selling products and this is especially true in the car aftermarket parts industry.


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Thursday, January 24, 2013

T cell Heterogeneity

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T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the primary immune response. These cells exhibit phenotypic and/or functional heterogeneity [1].


Phenotypic heterogeneity arises from the expression of different markers on the cell surface. There are two well-defined subpopulations of T cells, namely T helper (Th) and T cytotoxic (Tc) cells, both of which express one or the other of two membrane glycoprotein molecules CD4 and CD8. T cells that express CD4 i.e. Th can only recognise antigen bound to class II MHC molecules, whereas T cells expressing CD8 (Tc) are restricted to recognition of antigen bound to class I MHC molecule.


The differences in phenotypes of the T cell results in differences in function. Within the T helper cells are two distinct kinds, Th1 and Th cells. Just like all T cells, these mature in the thymus but are only produced when T cells encounter dendritic cells, which present antigen to the TCR. Th1 and Th cells are produced when DC1 and DC types dentritic cells present antigen to the TCR respectively (figure 1). The generation of an immune response both humoral by B cells and cell-mediated by Tc cells (CD8+) depends on the activation of Th cells. Th1 subset produces great amounts of IL- and IFN gamma; cytokines particularly important in cell mediated immunity. The Th subset is very good at providing B cell help by secreting IL-4,-5 and 6. The molecular basis for Th1- and Th-specific gene expression remains to be elucidated. However it has been found that Th cells express the GATA- gene whereas Th1 cells do not [].


The main role of the cytotoxic T cell, as the name suggests, is to kill other cells. The requirement for MHC class I on the target cell means that the Tc cell is very important in recognizing and destroying self-cells that have been altered or infected. The Tc cell must first become activated and mature into a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). These CTLs express on their surface molecules of a transmenbrane protein called the Fas Ligand. This is useful in ‘killing’ most potential CTL targets as they express Fas (receptor for FasL) on their cell surface.


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The T cell receptor made up of different heterodimers also contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity. The T cell receptors composed of and polypeptide chains can directly recognise antigens in the form of intact proteins or non-peptide compounds while those made up of and recognise antigens bound to MHC molecules. About 5% of peripheral blood T cells bear TCRs, most of which recognise non-peptide phosphorylated antigens []. TCRs and TCRs are both a result of rearranging gene segments. The chain is encoded by V, J and C segments. The chain is encoded by V, D, J and C gene segments. So rearrangement of the TCR and chain gene segments results in VJ joining for the chain and VDJ joining for the chain. Several mechanisms operate during TCR gene rearrangement and thus creating a high degree of diversity among T cell receptors. Figure shows the TCR, which the mature cytotoxic T lymphocytes express and figure compares the TCR and TCR.





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Wednesday, January 23, 2013

A true friend

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This cant happen to me!!! It just cant!! I screamed. I ran out of my English class, towards the guidance office, but there they were waiting for me. I quickly did a 180, and dashed out the side door. I ran as fast as I could towards the little woods behind Greenwood High School. I wasnt sure where I was going or when I was going to stop, I just needed some time to think. I found a big apple tree and slumped down on one of its big roots. It was here that I stayed until late at night. Millions of thoughts were going through my head all at once; how could this have happened? She was fine yesterday! I saw her last night! Why did this happen? She was only 16. Tears filled my eyes as I thought of how Stephanie looked last night. She is so beautiful, I thought, I just dont understand.


RING! The bell for my last class just rang. Great guys, were late again, I said to Kara. Yea, Mrs. Oaks is going to kill us. We slammed our lockers shut and sprinted to room 07. Maybe Steph will be in there, I thought to myself. She hadnt come to school today and I had tried calling her eight times during lunch, but got no answer. Kara must have been thinking the same thing, Hey, do you think Steph will be there? I just shrugged. It was really odd for her not to come to school without telling one of us first. As soon as Kara and me entered the room we expected to get the death look from Mrs. Oaks. The look that says if I wasnt so old and weak, I would kill you with my bear hands for being late, but we didnt get it. Instead, she looked at me with a sorrowful look and quietly shut the door. Then she went to the front of the room with a little piece of paper in her hands, sat on her bench, and didnt speak a word. The whole class became silent. Even though we sometimes think Mrs. Oaks is senile, this was a little bizarre for her. What the hell is goin on? Some kid asked from the back of the room. We all started snickering, but were interrupted when she stood up and said the words that will ring in my mind for the rest of my life; I have some tragic news. Then she read from the piece of paper, One of our fellow students was in a car wreck this morning. Stephanie Daprile was pronounced dead at 74 a.m. That was all I heard. I suddenly felt numb and dead to the world. People were talking all around me but I felt as if I was a million miles away. That is when I ran. I ran towards the guidance office, and I could see Mr. Gardner waiting for me with open arms. No! I didnt want to talk to him; I didnt want to talk to anyone.


Steph was like an angel. She even looked like one. If she looked at someone a certain way, she could get anything she wanted. Guys were always drooling over her brown curly hair or her big brown puppy dog eyes. I always asked her, why not take advantage of that? She would always reply with, We are here to add what we can to life, not to get what we can from it. I never really understood that, but the more I sat underneath that tree, the more things Steph said became clear. I leaned back against the tree, closed my eyes and remembered my childhood.


All through middle school, my parents would have horrible fights. Sometimes they were so violent I was even terrified of staying there. In 8th grade one night, I woke up to a crashing glass sound. I opened my door to find my dad throwing glass jars at my mom. Both were screaming at each other and telling them they hated each other. Me, thinking I would be able to stop it, step


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The Animal-Human Bond: How Strong Is It? (Prison Dog Project)

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The Animal-Human Bond How Strong Is It?


“A prison inmate, a neglected shelter puppy and a disabled person � on the surface, the three just do not seem to have a lot in common. However, in prisons across the United States and other countries, kindness, hard work and the desire for a productive life are connecting them”-petplace.com.


The Prison Dog programs are a good deal for the dogs, who are adopted from shelters where they would otherwise be killed. These dogs are given the ability to help others and in some cases, given a second chance at life. It is good for their disabled owners, who experience a new world of freedom with the dogs at their side. The programs can also change the lives of the inmates who are showing greater social interaction with fellow prisoners and staff and a sense of real responsibility from their participation.


In 181 Sister Pauline Quinn, a Dominican nun, began the Prison Pet Partnership Program (PPPP) at the Washington State Correctional Center for Women (WCCW). “Her belief was that the animal-human relationship could help with inmate rehabilitation. With that thought in mind, inmates at the WCCW began training special dogs that would assist disabled people”(pathwaysofhope.org).


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Since that time, the program has proven to be nothing less than amazing. More than 600 dogs have been placed with the disabled since the program began at the Washington prison and new programs have been spawned around the world (pathwaystohope.org).


Numerous states have seen the benefits of the program and have decided to put together their own. Presently, there are Prison Dog Programs in Maine, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, New York, Virginia, Washington D.C., and Washington State. In addition, Canada, England, Scotland, Australia, and South Africa have also taken part (pathwaystohope.org).


I wanted to give something back and help people who are in institutions find meaning to their life through the dog, says Sister Pauline. It gives the inmates the opportunity to become ‘other’ centered while giving something back to society. People need to have purpose in their life and this gives them the chance to learn skills, to be loved unconditionally by the dog, and to give love to people who need a special dog to help them.


The programs allow the prison inmates to adopt dogs from the local animal shelters or humane societies and train them to assist the disabled, become guide dogs, and in some cases, save an unwanted dog from euthanasia.


The National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy (NCPPSP) numbers from 17 shows that


• The number of dogs entering the shelters were ,,78


• 56% of dogs that enter animal shelters are euthanized.


• 5% of dogs that enter animal shelters are adopted.


“In 186, the Prison Pet Partnership Program out of the WCCW was one of the top ten finalists for Innovations in State and Local Government recognized by the Ford Foundation and the John F. Kennedy School of Business at Harvard University” (pathwaystohope.org).


The dogs spend a good deal of time with their trainers within the prison community. To the left are some of the women inmates training the dogs to be friendly with a cat. This will be useful when the dogs are released to a new home with “different” animals.


“General H. Norman Schwarzkopf came to the WCCW in 17 to host “What’s Right in America” for NBC. He felt that the Prison Pet Partnership Program exemplified how the prison system can aid in the rehabilitation of inmates while serving the community at large” (pathwaystohope.org).


The women work at a prison kennel in the mornings, feeding and grooming the dogs boarded there by private owners. “The boarding of the dogs, grooming fees, plus donations and grants, keep the nonprofit program running” (The Seattle Times).


The objectives of the program are


• To place 60 dogs with recipients annually, with at least 5% of them being Service/Seizure or Therapy animals.


• To establish a scholarship fund to assist released inmates from prison to continue their pet industry related education.


• To continue to build a Veterinary Assistance Fund, started by the Bosack Kruger Foundation in 15.


• To assure quality veterinary care for our dogs before they are placed in the community and to assist a number of low income recipients or our dogs when they are unable to pay their veterinary bills (pathwaystohope.org).


“The program is not for every inmate. Prisoners must first meet qualifications before being admitted in to the program Any major violation of prison rules results in automatic removal from the program. Once excluded, prisoners cannot rejoin. Any sign of mistreatment or neglect also results in expulsion” (pathwaystohope.org).


Some of the requirements are


• Anyone with a history of abuse toward children or animals are excluded automatically.


• Inmates must serve at least 1 year before they can be considered for the program. This is so prison authorities can review the inmates behavior while incarcerated.


• Candidates must have at least two years left to their sentence, so they can complete the program.


• Candidates must be free of major infractions against prison rules � such as fighting � for 1 year.


• Candidates must be free of minor infractions for 0 days. A minor infraction includes missing an appointment in the prison.


• Candidates must not have a history of drug abuse in the prison (petplace.com).


Inmates must take and pass a -month Pet Care Technician class, given by the American Boarding Kennels Association if they are accepted into the program. They learn skills such as the physiology of dogs, first aid for pets (including CPR), grooming, pet health and wellness maintenance, kennel care, as well as customer relation skills (pathwaystohope.org).


When they pass the course, inmates are assigned one or two dogs. The dogs live with the inmates in their cells. Beth Rivard, the programs coordinator explains that, “A cell usually holds four people. Instead, two inmates and two dogs, or two inmates and one dog, are housed together” (pathwaystohope.org).


“Only about twenty percent of the dogs have the temperament to complete the eight- month training”, said Executive Director Beth Rivard. The rest are adopted out in to the community as “paroled pets.” “It costs approximately $5,000 to train one service dog”, she said, “and the disabled recipients pay only a $5 application fee” (The Seattle Times).


This program teaches inmates how to become productive members of society and the results are amazing. The female prisoners involved in the 1 year PPPP have a re-offending rate of zero percent and one hundred and seventy dogs have been rescued from the pound, taken to prison, educated and placed as service dogs.


The Prison Pet Partnership (PPP) is out of the Perdy Correctional Center for Women in Washington D.C. This program has numerous benefits for the inmates including


• Lessons on care and responsibility for life


• Job skills


• Getting in touch with their feelings


• Having something to care for


• Getting the opportunity to feel better about themselves


• The ability to accomplish their goals (pathwaystohope.org).


This program matches the inmates with unwanted dogs from a shelter. They teach them to be dogs that are “adoptable and keepable.” This includes sit, stay, come, heel, off, as well as learning how to behave in crowds and in front of strangers and other animals. These dogs are not adoptable because of their demeanor (pathwaystohope.org).


Each cycle lasts about three months and the dogs are then placed in their new homes. The inmates feel that the dogs “help break barriers that exist between each other.” They tend to feel less defensive and more relaxed. “When a prisoner has a friendly dog by their side, people want to go up and greet them. The friendly dog then helps to break the tension” (pathwaystohope.org).


The women also train Service Dogs. Those dogs will go on to assist the physically disabled. They teach them to open and close doors and pick up dropped items when requested.


“I’ve learned responsibility,” said Jennifer Palmer, who is serving a sentence of three years and ten months. “I know now it depends on me to change my life. Doing this has given me self-esteem. This is something I can do” (The Seattle Times).


It is difficult for the women to let the dogs go to their new owners. The dogs are placed with these women twenty-four hours a day and they become attached very quickly. “This program allows the new owners to bring the dogs back for boarding if they go on vacation, and gives the inmates to opportunity to see the dogs for another time” (pathwaystohope.org).


In 10, another program joined the list, Friends for Folks at the Lexington Assessment and Reception Center in Oklahoma. This program allows long-term inmates to train dogs from local shelters as companions for single elderly people or as service dogs for the disabled.


The Assessment and Reception Center is a medium security prison with approximately 800 prisoners. There are twenty inmates involved with the Friends for Folks program, and there is a large waiting list. Many inmates are involved because the prisoners are rotated through the program (pathwaystohope.org).


Normal training takes ten weeks however, for a donation of seventy-five dollars, inmates are willing to put the dogs through a new High Intensity Program (HIT). This obedience-training program allows for the potential new owners of the dog to have the training done in thirty days. The training is a full time job for four inmates who give the dogs constant care (Pet Gazette).


“To the left is Lexington Correctional Center, a facility that houses over 1,000 inmates in minimum, medium and maximum-security units. Unit , a medium unit, also houses very different inmates, ones with four legs” (Pet Gazette).


“The dogs get a second chance to live out their lives in a useful manner in a non-abusive environment. There is no cost to the recipients, and the dogs are delivered. For senior citizens, the dogs fill a void, helping them cope with loneliness and the need to show affection. For the inmates, its a chance to change their outlook on life” (Pet Gazette).


Project POOCH (Positive Opportunities-Obvious Change with Hounds) began in 1 at the Maclaren School, Oregon Youth Authority in Woodburn Oregon. This is a Juvenile Correctional Center for males. Juvenile offenders adopt dogs form two local animal shelters and give the dog’s obedience training with the help of their classroom teacher, who is also a dog trainer.


The student trainers work with their dogs each day, and apply “The principles of positive reinforcement and behavior modification.” As the trainers teach their dogs, they also learn about themselves. They acquire the following abilities


• to be responsible


• to persist when faced with setbacks


• to know they are needed


• to realize dogs dont care about excuses


• to be consistent and reliable


• to practice patience


• to know how it feels to make a difference (pathwaystohope.org)


Based on survey responses from adults’ staff at the MacLaren Youth Correctional Facility, students who participated in Project Pooch showed marked behavior improvement in the areas of respect for authority, social interaction and leadership (pathwaystohope.org).


Program alumni interviewed reported that they “Felt they had changed and improved in the areas of honesty, empathy, nurturing, social growth, understanding, self-confidence and pride of accomplishment” (pathwaystohope.org).


“The relationships, emotional support and mutual trust established between the trainers and dogs are key to the success of the program” (pathwaystohope.org).


The students involved with Project POOCH have decreased numbers of office referrals and show improved self-esteem, patience, responsibility, and vocational skills (pathwaystohope.org).


Another program is Puppies Behind Bars (PBB), which began in 17 at the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility in New York. Inmates in this facility raise guide dogs for the blind. This is the only Maximum Security Prison for women in New York.


PBB began with only five puppies and now there are five more facilities participating with over fifty puppies. Twenty-three of those puppies have become guide dogs (pathwaystohope.org).


Gloria Gilbert Stoga founded the program. She served on a commission to develop private sector employment for low-income residents for Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani when she heard about a prison dog program in Ohio. I just thought it made a lot of sense to utilize people that had a lot of time on their hands to help blind people through these dogs, Ms. Stoga said (The New York Times).


In an interview with the USA Network Stoga said, “The primary objective of the PBB is to raise the most highly trained, healthy, happy-to-work guide dogs, and allow blind individuals to have a chance at independence.”


Willie, to the left, who has been blind for twelve years and received a dog from PBB says, “I know it’s not only helping myself, but it’s helping the ones training the dogs” (USA Network).


“Each dog comes to the correctional facility at two months old and becomes the sole responsibility of a carefully selected inmate. Participants live on special puppy-raising wards, where they care for their animals 4 hours per day - overseeing everything from house-training to toenail clipping - for a year and a half” (Good Housekeeping).


Because the puppies live in the cell with the inmates for sixteen months, they are taken to “puppy sitters” two to three times a months to get them exposed to outside influences. This is beneficial for the puppies for many reasons. The puppies will hear simple sounds that the prison environment does not provide, such as a doorbell ringing or a coffee grinder. It also exposes them to complex things for instance, riding in a car or walking down a crowded sidewalk (pathwaysofhope.org).


Puppy raisers are required to sign a contract with PBB. It outlines the inmate’s responsibilities with the puppies and with the program. The contract clearly states that inmates will be asked to leave for any reason deemed appropriate by PBB (pathwaystohope.org).


Requirements for participation in the program include mandatory attendance at weekly puppy class and successful completion of reading assignments, homework and exams. The puppy raiser must always put the needs of the puppy before his or her own, must be able to work effectively as a member of a team, and must be able to give and receive criticism in a constructive manner (pathwaystohope.org).


“When you ask the inmates what they learned from PBB they will say ‘Somebody trusted me.’ It gives them hope because it makes them feel human again.” believes Ms. Stoga (USA Network).


Stoga said, Are we raising guide dogs? Yes. Is that the first and foremost thing we are doing? Yes. However, these are people who are being given an opportunity to learn important basic life lessons, and theyre learning via these dogs (pathwaystohope.org).


Chris Rogers says that, for the first years of his 17-year stretch in prison, he led a lonesome existence, spending most of his time on his own, reading. Then, after he begged and begged to get into the Puppies Behind Bars program, came Doris, a tiny Labrador retriever (pathwaystohope.org).


Prison went from being a dead space to a place that was alive, says Rogers, 6, who’s been on parole for six months. He began to make friends, and gained a sense of purpose. “Puppies Behind Bars has contributed enormously to my success outside of prison”, replies Rogers, who now has an apartment in upper Manhattan and a job as an assistant with the program (pathwaystohope.org).


The benefits from all of the programs affect the inmates, animals, staff, and the community that receives the trained animals.


Dogs benefit from these programs by often being saved from near death and given a second chance. The training and grooming they receive by the inmates allows the animals to be more presentable and desired by potential owners. The dogs that become assistants to the physically disabled, hearing impaired or senior citizens are a valuable contribution to the population.


In addition to saving the lives of dogs on death row at local shelters, the program also positively affects the lives of inmates, who learn valuable job skills they can use when they resume life outside prison walls. Prisoners work toward pet care, technician certification, or companion animal hygienist certifications. The inmate behavior and self-esteem improve. The programs teach discipline, cooperation, and respect for others.


The staff members who work with these programs see the difference in the inmates and the benefits to the animals. The staff believes that the dogs make the work environment less hectic and easier to manage. It relaxes the mood of the situation and promotes better communication with the inmates.


The community, especially those who are physically disabled, hearing impaired, or the elderly have been extremely pleased with the program results. They believe that not only are the dogs being trained to assist them, but also the inmates are using their time constructively. The society has shown to be eager to accept these dogs into their homes, and to correspond with their trainers.


There are ,0,1 inmates in the prison system (Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics), ,,78 unwanted dogs in shelters (NCPPSP), 100 million visually disabled Americans (census.gov) and 4.7 million people with long-lasting disabilities (census.gov). They will fight the battle for trust and companionship together, all come out winners.


American Humane Association. “Animal Shelter Euthanasia.” 00 http//aha.convio.net


Clemence, Sara. “Puppies from Prison Succeed at a Dog’s Toughest Job.”


Columbia News Service, April , 00.


Cook, Rebecca. “”Dog Training Program Offers New Hope to Inmates.” The Seattle Times, June 11, 000.


Jones, Hugh. “Prison Dogs Hard Time, Soft Hearts.” OK Pet Gazette, 001.


Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics. http//ojp.usdoj.gov


National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy. “The Shelter’s Statistics Survey.” 17. http//petpopulation.org


O’Connor, James V. “Puppies Behind Bars.” The New York Times, August , 1.


“Puppies Behind Bars.” Movie Clip (http//puppiesbehindbars.com) USA Network.


Quinn, Pauline Sr. “Prison Dog Project.” http//pathwaystohope.org


Renda, Kathleen. “A New Leash on Life.” Good Housekeeping, April 001.


United States Census Bureau. http//.census.gov


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Tuesday, January 22, 2013

history

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Causes of World War One





The first world war began on August 14th, 114. It was triggered by the assassination of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Chotek duchess of Hohenberg at 1115 on June 8th, 114. They were assassinated bythe Black Hand, Serbian Nationalist Gavrilo Princip. The war wasnt started until about a month after the assassination and the archduke and his wife. This incident was what ignited the spark to the greatest and deadliest was known to man up until that time. After this assassination one thing had led to another, and soon enough it created a world level war, leaving about 10 million troops dead. The four main causes in which were held responsible for this were the forming on Alliances, Nationalism came into play, Imperalism was a big part, and lastly militarism.What is this war? It is mud, trenches, blood, rats, lice, bombs, pain, barbed wire, decaying flesh, gas, death, rain, cats, tears, bullets, fear and a loss of faith in all that we once believed in. Otto Dix


Firstly, an alliance is an agreement made between two or more countries to provide help for eachother if it is needed. When an alliance is signed, those countries become known as allies. Alliances were formed to make two groups. These groups were better known as the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. And the Triple Entente (Allies) consisted of Britain, France, and Russia. It was thought at first that alliances would promote peace, since each country would be protected by others in case of war, making it foolish for one country to declare war on another.But this statement is wrong!Alliances cause such a HUGE problem since if one of the allies were to attack one of the central powers or vice versa then all of the countries that were part of the allies of central powers would also be forced to fight, causing maybe a little problem into a HUGE world war. In the case of world war one the attack on Serbia forced all of its allies to come to its defense and fight with them. As you can tell thats why the war was on such a high level, since all of the other countries were forced to fight the battle also.


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Secondly, Nationalism was a big part of world war one, the belief that loyalty to a persons nation and its political and economic goals comes befor any other public loyalty. During the 1800s nationalism got ahold of the people who shared a common language, history, or culture. This is what led to the creation of two new powers- Italy and Germany. Worse case scenario nationalism weakened the eastern European empires of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Ottoman Turkey, This was a problem because these empires ruled national groups that strived for independance.





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Network and Telecommunication Concepts

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A mesh topology is a network topology that has at least two nodes with two or more paths between them. The advantage is that if a node fails or is busy then there is alternate path traffic can be routed to. The disadvantage is the cost since this requires the extra equipment.


A horizontal bus is when all nodes are connected by a single bus or line. This allows every node to receive every transmission. The disadvantage to this topology is that if the bus fails all communications are down.


A Ring topology consists of every node has two branches to it, a receiving branch and a sending branch. As the name implies all nodes are connected in a ring. The advantage is that it rarely suffers from bottlenecks and is easily implemented. The disadvantage is that if the branch between nodes fails then the network is down.


A star topology consists of a central node that receives a transmission from any peripheral node and retransmits that signal to all the nodes including the original broadcaster. The advantage is that if you lose one node the rest of the network still works. The disadvantage is if you lose the central node the network is down. It is also prone to bottlenecks.


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Ethernet is a Protocol standard fro transmitting 10 mbps. Xerox originally developed it. An Ethernet LAN utilizes RG-58 Coax, Category 5 UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) and or Fiber Optics.


An advantage to this network is that is usually very fast, probably the least expensive to implement and extremely reliable. The disadvantage is the setup can be difficult.


Token ring networks pass a token around the network. If the peripheral has the token it can transmit its signal. The token only sits on the peripheral for a limited amount of time.


The advantage is that network traffic is predictable meaning that it can be calculated how long it takes a token to pass through the network. It makes it ideal for factory automation. The disadvantage is that if the sending device fails its sending device may continue to circle the frame essentially locking up the network. There is error handling in place for such things but this puts a lot of traffic on the network to monitor this type of thing. This network is expensive and is not as fast as Ethernet.


Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FIDDI) is used as the high-speed backbone of most large networks. It has the greatest bandwidth and allows for the longest runs. Its primarily transmission media is Fiber Optics but in certain instances can include copper.


The advantage of FIDDI is that is does not emit electrical signals so it cannot easily be tapped. It is immune to EMI and RFI. Unlike Copper, which limits the distance between stations, Fiber can exist between stations approximately miles apart using multimode fiber and longer fore single mode. The disadvantage of FIDDI is that it is costly to install and maintain.


Wireless Networking utilizes radio frequencies to connect two devices. The advantage is no wiring needs to be in place to connect to the network. The big disadvantage it is not secure and you are open to Hacking.


http//www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/fddi.htm#xtocid


http//www.atis.org/tgk/


http//homepages.feis.herts.ac.uk/~simon/networks1/node8.html#SECTION0050000000000000000


http//www.howstuffworks.com/wireless-network.htm


http//www.wired.com/news/wireless/0,18,46187,00.html


Please note that this sample paper on Network and Telecommunication Concepts is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Network and Telecommunication Concepts, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Network and Telecommunication Concepts will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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