Thursday, January 24, 2013

T cell Heterogeneity

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T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the primary immune response. These cells exhibit phenotypic and/or functional heterogeneity [1].


Phenotypic heterogeneity arises from the expression of different markers on the cell surface. There are two well-defined subpopulations of T cells, namely T helper (Th) and T cytotoxic (Tc) cells, both of which express one or the other of two membrane glycoprotein molecules CD4 and CD8. T cells that express CD4 i.e. Th can only recognise antigen bound to class II MHC molecules, whereas T cells expressing CD8 (Tc) are restricted to recognition of antigen bound to class I MHC molecule.


The differences in phenotypes of the T cell results in differences in function. Within the T helper cells are two distinct kinds, Th1 and Th cells. Just like all T cells, these mature in the thymus but are only produced when T cells encounter dendritic cells, which present antigen to the TCR. Th1 and Th cells are produced when DC1 and DC types dentritic cells present antigen to the TCR respectively (figure 1). The generation of an immune response both humoral by B cells and cell-mediated by Tc cells (CD8+) depends on the activation of Th cells. Th1 subset produces great amounts of IL- and IFN gamma; cytokines particularly important in cell mediated immunity. The Th subset is very good at providing B cell help by secreting IL-4,-5 and 6. The molecular basis for Th1- and Th-specific gene expression remains to be elucidated. However it has been found that Th cells express the GATA- gene whereas Th1 cells do not [].


The main role of the cytotoxic T cell, as the name suggests, is to kill other cells. The requirement for MHC class I on the target cell means that the Tc cell is very important in recognizing and destroying self-cells that have been altered or infected. The Tc cell must first become activated and mature into a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). These CTLs express on their surface molecules of a transmenbrane protein called the Fas Ligand. This is useful in ‘killing’ most potential CTL targets as they express Fas (receptor for FasL) on their cell surface.


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The T cell receptor made up of different heterodimers also contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity. The T cell receptors composed of and polypeptide chains can directly recognise antigens in the form of intact proteins or non-peptide compounds while those made up of and recognise antigens bound to MHC molecules. About 5% of peripheral blood T cells bear TCRs, most of which recognise non-peptide phosphorylated antigens []. TCRs and TCRs are both a result of rearranging gene segments. The chain is encoded by V, J and C segments. The chain is encoded by V, D, J and C gene segments. So rearrangement of the TCR and chain gene segments results in VJ joining for the chain and VDJ joining for the chain. Several mechanisms operate during TCR gene rearrangement and thus creating a high degree of diversity among T cell receptors. Figure shows the TCR, which the mature cytotoxic T lymphocytes express and figure compares the TCR and TCR.





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Wednesday, January 23, 2013

A true friend

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This cant happen to me!!! It just cant!! I screamed. I ran out of my English class, towards the guidance office, but there they were waiting for me. I quickly did a 180, and dashed out the side door. I ran as fast as I could towards the little woods behind Greenwood High School. I wasnt sure where I was going or when I was going to stop, I just needed some time to think. I found a big apple tree and slumped down on one of its big roots. It was here that I stayed until late at night. Millions of thoughts were going through my head all at once; how could this have happened? She was fine yesterday! I saw her last night! Why did this happen? She was only 16. Tears filled my eyes as I thought of how Stephanie looked last night. She is so beautiful, I thought, I just dont understand.


RING! The bell for my last class just rang. Great guys, were late again, I said to Kara. Yea, Mrs. Oaks is going to kill us. We slammed our lockers shut and sprinted to room 07. Maybe Steph will be in there, I thought to myself. She hadnt come to school today and I had tried calling her eight times during lunch, but got no answer. Kara must have been thinking the same thing, Hey, do you think Steph will be there? I just shrugged. It was really odd for her not to come to school without telling one of us first. As soon as Kara and me entered the room we expected to get the death look from Mrs. Oaks. The look that says if I wasnt so old and weak, I would kill you with my bear hands for being late, but we didnt get it. Instead, she looked at me with a sorrowful look and quietly shut the door. Then she went to the front of the room with a little piece of paper in her hands, sat on her bench, and didnt speak a word. The whole class became silent. Even though we sometimes think Mrs. Oaks is senile, this was a little bizarre for her. What the hell is goin on? Some kid asked from the back of the room. We all started snickering, but were interrupted when she stood up and said the words that will ring in my mind for the rest of my life; I have some tragic news. Then she read from the piece of paper, One of our fellow students was in a car wreck this morning. Stephanie Daprile was pronounced dead at 74 a.m. That was all I heard. I suddenly felt numb and dead to the world. People were talking all around me but I felt as if I was a million miles away. That is when I ran. I ran towards the guidance office, and I could see Mr. Gardner waiting for me with open arms. No! I didnt want to talk to him; I didnt want to talk to anyone.


Steph was like an angel. She even looked like one. If she looked at someone a certain way, she could get anything she wanted. Guys were always drooling over her brown curly hair or her big brown puppy dog eyes. I always asked her, why not take advantage of that? She would always reply with, We are here to add what we can to life, not to get what we can from it. I never really understood that, but the more I sat underneath that tree, the more things Steph said became clear. I leaned back against the tree, closed my eyes and remembered my childhood.


All through middle school, my parents would have horrible fights. Sometimes they were so violent I was even terrified of staying there. In 8th grade one night, I woke up to a crashing glass sound. I opened my door to find my dad throwing glass jars at my mom. Both were screaming at each other and telling them they hated each other. Me, thinking I would be able to stop it, step


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The Animal-Human Bond: How Strong Is It? (Prison Dog Project)

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The Animal-Human Bond How Strong Is It?


“A prison inmate, a neglected shelter puppy and a disabled person � on the surface, the three just do not seem to have a lot in common. However, in prisons across the United States and other countries, kindness, hard work and the desire for a productive life are connecting them”-petplace.com.


The Prison Dog programs are a good deal for the dogs, who are adopted from shelters where they would otherwise be killed. These dogs are given the ability to help others and in some cases, given a second chance at life. It is good for their disabled owners, who experience a new world of freedom with the dogs at their side. The programs can also change the lives of the inmates who are showing greater social interaction with fellow prisoners and staff and a sense of real responsibility from their participation.


In 181 Sister Pauline Quinn, a Dominican nun, began the Prison Pet Partnership Program (PPPP) at the Washington State Correctional Center for Women (WCCW). “Her belief was that the animal-human relationship could help with inmate rehabilitation. With that thought in mind, inmates at the WCCW began training special dogs that would assist disabled people”(pathwaysofhope.org).


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Since that time, the program has proven to be nothing less than amazing. More than 600 dogs have been placed with the disabled since the program began at the Washington prison and new programs have been spawned around the world (pathwaystohope.org).


Numerous states have seen the benefits of the program and have decided to put together their own. Presently, there are Prison Dog Programs in Maine, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, New York, Virginia, Washington D.C., and Washington State. In addition, Canada, England, Scotland, Australia, and South Africa have also taken part (pathwaystohope.org).


I wanted to give something back and help people who are in institutions find meaning to their life through the dog, says Sister Pauline. It gives the inmates the opportunity to become ‘other’ centered while giving something back to society. People need to have purpose in their life and this gives them the chance to learn skills, to be loved unconditionally by the dog, and to give love to people who need a special dog to help them.


The programs allow the prison inmates to adopt dogs from the local animal shelters or humane societies and train them to assist the disabled, become guide dogs, and in some cases, save an unwanted dog from euthanasia.


The National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy (NCPPSP) numbers from 17 shows that


• The number of dogs entering the shelters were ,,78


• 56% of dogs that enter animal shelters are euthanized.


• 5% of dogs that enter animal shelters are adopted.


“In 186, the Prison Pet Partnership Program out of the WCCW was one of the top ten finalists for Innovations in State and Local Government recognized by the Ford Foundation and the John F. Kennedy School of Business at Harvard University” (pathwaystohope.org).


The dogs spend a good deal of time with their trainers within the prison community. To the left are some of the women inmates training the dogs to be friendly with a cat. This will be useful when the dogs are released to a new home with “different” animals.


“General H. Norman Schwarzkopf came to the WCCW in 17 to host “What’s Right in America” for NBC. He felt that the Prison Pet Partnership Program exemplified how the prison system can aid in the rehabilitation of inmates while serving the community at large” (pathwaystohope.org).


The women work at a prison kennel in the mornings, feeding and grooming the dogs boarded there by private owners. “The boarding of the dogs, grooming fees, plus donations and grants, keep the nonprofit program running” (The Seattle Times).


The objectives of the program are


• To place 60 dogs with recipients annually, with at least 5% of them being Service/Seizure or Therapy animals.


• To establish a scholarship fund to assist released inmates from prison to continue their pet industry related education.


• To continue to build a Veterinary Assistance Fund, started by the Bosack Kruger Foundation in 15.


• To assure quality veterinary care for our dogs before they are placed in the community and to assist a number of low income recipients or our dogs when they are unable to pay their veterinary bills (pathwaystohope.org).


“The program is not for every inmate. Prisoners must first meet qualifications before being admitted in to the program Any major violation of prison rules results in automatic removal from the program. Once excluded, prisoners cannot rejoin. Any sign of mistreatment or neglect also results in expulsion” (pathwaystohope.org).


Some of the requirements are


• Anyone with a history of abuse toward children or animals are excluded automatically.


• Inmates must serve at least 1 year before they can be considered for the program. This is so prison authorities can review the inmates behavior while incarcerated.


• Candidates must have at least two years left to their sentence, so they can complete the program.


• Candidates must be free of major infractions against prison rules � such as fighting � for 1 year.


• Candidates must be free of minor infractions for 0 days. A minor infraction includes missing an appointment in the prison.


• Candidates must not have a history of drug abuse in the prison (petplace.com).


Inmates must take and pass a -month Pet Care Technician class, given by the American Boarding Kennels Association if they are accepted into the program. They learn skills such as the physiology of dogs, first aid for pets (including CPR), grooming, pet health and wellness maintenance, kennel care, as well as customer relation skills (pathwaystohope.org).


When they pass the course, inmates are assigned one or two dogs. The dogs live with the inmates in their cells. Beth Rivard, the programs coordinator explains that, “A cell usually holds four people. Instead, two inmates and two dogs, or two inmates and one dog, are housed together” (pathwaystohope.org).


“Only about twenty percent of the dogs have the temperament to complete the eight- month training”, said Executive Director Beth Rivard. The rest are adopted out in to the community as “paroled pets.” “It costs approximately $5,000 to train one service dog”, she said, “and the disabled recipients pay only a $5 application fee” (The Seattle Times).


This program teaches inmates how to become productive members of society and the results are amazing. The female prisoners involved in the 1 year PPPP have a re-offending rate of zero percent and one hundred and seventy dogs have been rescued from the pound, taken to prison, educated and placed as service dogs.


The Prison Pet Partnership (PPP) is out of the Perdy Correctional Center for Women in Washington D.C. This program has numerous benefits for the inmates including


• Lessons on care and responsibility for life


• Job skills


• Getting in touch with their feelings


• Having something to care for


• Getting the opportunity to feel better about themselves


• The ability to accomplish their goals (pathwaystohope.org).


This program matches the inmates with unwanted dogs from a shelter. They teach them to be dogs that are “adoptable and keepable.” This includes sit, stay, come, heel, off, as well as learning how to behave in crowds and in front of strangers and other animals. These dogs are not adoptable because of their demeanor (pathwaystohope.org).


Each cycle lasts about three months and the dogs are then placed in their new homes. The inmates feel that the dogs “help break barriers that exist between each other.” They tend to feel less defensive and more relaxed. “When a prisoner has a friendly dog by their side, people want to go up and greet them. The friendly dog then helps to break the tension” (pathwaystohope.org).


The women also train Service Dogs. Those dogs will go on to assist the physically disabled. They teach them to open and close doors and pick up dropped items when requested.


“I’ve learned responsibility,” said Jennifer Palmer, who is serving a sentence of three years and ten months. “I know now it depends on me to change my life. Doing this has given me self-esteem. This is something I can do” (The Seattle Times).


It is difficult for the women to let the dogs go to their new owners. The dogs are placed with these women twenty-four hours a day and they become attached very quickly. “This program allows the new owners to bring the dogs back for boarding if they go on vacation, and gives the inmates to opportunity to see the dogs for another time” (pathwaystohope.org).


In 10, another program joined the list, Friends for Folks at the Lexington Assessment and Reception Center in Oklahoma. This program allows long-term inmates to train dogs from local shelters as companions for single elderly people or as service dogs for the disabled.


The Assessment and Reception Center is a medium security prison with approximately 800 prisoners. There are twenty inmates involved with the Friends for Folks program, and there is a large waiting list. Many inmates are involved because the prisoners are rotated through the program (pathwaystohope.org).


Normal training takes ten weeks however, for a donation of seventy-five dollars, inmates are willing to put the dogs through a new High Intensity Program (HIT). This obedience-training program allows for the potential new owners of the dog to have the training done in thirty days. The training is a full time job for four inmates who give the dogs constant care (Pet Gazette).


“To the left is Lexington Correctional Center, a facility that houses over 1,000 inmates in minimum, medium and maximum-security units. Unit , a medium unit, also houses very different inmates, ones with four legs” (Pet Gazette).


“The dogs get a second chance to live out their lives in a useful manner in a non-abusive environment. There is no cost to the recipients, and the dogs are delivered. For senior citizens, the dogs fill a void, helping them cope with loneliness and the need to show affection. For the inmates, its a chance to change their outlook on life” (Pet Gazette).


Project POOCH (Positive Opportunities-Obvious Change with Hounds) began in 1 at the Maclaren School, Oregon Youth Authority in Woodburn Oregon. This is a Juvenile Correctional Center for males. Juvenile offenders adopt dogs form two local animal shelters and give the dog’s obedience training with the help of their classroom teacher, who is also a dog trainer.


The student trainers work with their dogs each day, and apply “The principles of positive reinforcement and behavior modification.” As the trainers teach their dogs, they also learn about themselves. They acquire the following abilities


• to be responsible


• to persist when faced with setbacks


• to know they are needed


• to realize dogs dont care about excuses


• to be consistent and reliable


• to practice patience


• to know how it feels to make a difference (pathwaystohope.org)


Based on survey responses from adults’ staff at the MacLaren Youth Correctional Facility, students who participated in Project Pooch showed marked behavior improvement in the areas of respect for authority, social interaction and leadership (pathwaystohope.org).


Program alumni interviewed reported that they “Felt they had changed and improved in the areas of honesty, empathy, nurturing, social growth, understanding, self-confidence and pride of accomplishment” (pathwaystohope.org).


“The relationships, emotional support and mutual trust established between the trainers and dogs are key to the success of the program” (pathwaystohope.org).


The students involved with Project POOCH have decreased numbers of office referrals and show improved self-esteem, patience, responsibility, and vocational skills (pathwaystohope.org).


Another program is Puppies Behind Bars (PBB), which began in 17 at the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility in New York. Inmates in this facility raise guide dogs for the blind. This is the only Maximum Security Prison for women in New York.


PBB began with only five puppies and now there are five more facilities participating with over fifty puppies. Twenty-three of those puppies have become guide dogs (pathwaystohope.org).


Gloria Gilbert Stoga founded the program. She served on a commission to develop private sector employment for low-income residents for Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani when she heard about a prison dog program in Ohio. I just thought it made a lot of sense to utilize people that had a lot of time on their hands to help blind people through these dogs, Ms. Stoga said (The New York Times).


In an interview with the USA Network Stoga said, “The primary objective of the PBB is to raise the most highly trained, healthy, happy-to-work guide dogs, and allow blind individuals to have a chance at independence.”


Willie, to the left, who has been blind for twelve years and received a dog from PBB says, “I know it’s not only helping myself, but it’s helping the ones training the dogs” (USA Network).


“Each dog comes to the correctional facility at two months old and becomes the sole responsibility of a carefully selected inmate. Participants live on special puppy-raising wards, where they care for their animals 4 hours per day - overseeing everything from house-training to toenail clipping - for a year and a half” (Good Housekeeping).


Because the puppies live in the cell with the inmates for sixteen months, they are taken to “puppy sitters” two to three times a months to get them exposed to outside influences. This is beneficial for the puppies for many reasons. The puppies will hear simple sounds that the prison environment does not provide, such as a doorbell ringing or a coffee grinder. It also exposes them to complex things for instance, riding in a car or walking down a crowded sidewalk (pathwaysofhope.org).


Puppy raisers are required to sign a contract with PBB. It outlines the inmate’s responsibilities with the puppies and with the program. The contract clearly states that inmates will be asked to leave for any reason deemed appropriate by PBB (pathwaystohope.org).


Requirements for participation in the program include mandatory attendance at weekly puppy class and successful completion of reading assignments, homework and exams. The puppy raiser must always put the needs of the puppy before his or her own, must be able to work effectively as a member of a team, and must be able to give and receive criticism in a constructive manner (pathwaystohope.org).


“When you ask the inmates what they learned from PBB they will say ‘Somebody trusted me.’ It gives them hope because it makes them feel human again.” believes Ms. Stoga (USA Network).


Stoga said, Are we raising guide dogs? Yes. Is that the first and foremost thing we are doing? Yes. However, these are people who are being given an opportunity to learn important basic life lessons, and theyre learning via these dogs (pathwaystohope.org).


Chris Rogers says that, for the first years of his 17-year stretch in prison, he led a lonesome existence, spending most of his time on his own, reading. Then, after he begged and begged to get into the Puppies Behind Bars program, came Doris, a tiny Labrador retriever (pathwaystohope.org).


Prison went from being a dead space to a place that was alive, says Rogers, 6, who’s been on parole for six months. He began to make friends, and gained a sense of purpose. “Puppies Behind Bars has contributed enormously to my success outside of prison”, replies Rogers, who now has an apartment in upper Manhattan and a job as an assistant with the program (pathwaystohope.org).


The benefits from all of the programs affect the inmates, animals, staff, and the community that receives the trained animals.


Dogs benefit from these programs by often being saved from near death and given a second chance. The training and grooming they receive by the inmates allows the animals to be more presentable and desired by potential owners. The dogs that become assistants to the physically disabled, hearing impaired or senior citizens are a valuable contribution to the population.


In addition to saving the lives of dogs on death row at local shelters, the program also positively affects the lives of inmates, who learn valuable job skills they can use when they resume life outside prison walls. Prisoners work toward pet care, technician certification, or companion animal hygienist certifications. The inmate behavior and self-esteem improve. The programs teach discipline, cooperation, and respect for others.


The staff members who work with these programs see the difference in the inmates and the benefits to the animals. The staff believes that the dogs make the work environment less hectic and easier to manage. It relaxes the mood of the situation and promotes better communication with the inmates.


The community, especially those who are physically disabled, hearing impaired, or the elderly have been extremely pleased with the program results. They believe that not only are the dogs being trained to assist them, but also the inmates are using their time constructively. The society has shown to be eager to accept these dogs into their homes, and to correspond with their trainers.


There are ,0,1 inmates in the prison system (Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics), ,,78 unwanted dogs in shelters (NCPPSP), 100 million visually disabled Americans (census.gov) and 4.7 million people with long-lasting disabilities (census.gov). They will fight the battle for trust and companionship together, all come out winners.


American Humane Association. “Animal Shelter Euthanasia.” 00 http//aha.convio.net


Clemence, Sara. “Puppies from Prison Succeed at a Dog’s Toughest Job.”


Columbia News Service, April , 00.


Cook, Rebecca. “”Dog Training Program Offers New Hope to Inmates.” The Seattle Times, June 11, 000.


Jones, Hugh. “Prison Dogs Hard Time, Soft Hearts.” OK Pet Gazette, 001.


Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics. http//ojp.usdoj.gov


National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy. “The Shelter’s Statistics Survey.” 17. http//petpopulation.org


O’Connor, James V. “Puppies Behind Bars.” The New York Times, August , 1.


“Puppies Behind Bars.” Movie Clip (http//puppiesbehindbars.com) USA Network.


Quinn, Pauline Sr. “Prison Dog Project.” http//pathwaystohope.org


Renda, Kathleen. “A New Leash on Life.” Good Housekeeping, April 001.


United States Census Bureau. http//.census.gov


Please note that this sample paper on The Animal-Human Bond: How Strong Is It? (Prison Dog Project) is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on The Animal-Human Bond: How Strong Is It? (Prison Dog Project), we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on The Animal-Human Bond: How Strong Is It? (Prison Dog Project) will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Tuesday, January 22, 2013

history

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on history. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality history paper right on time.

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Causes of World War One





The first world war began on August 14th, 114. It was triggered by the assassination of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Chotek duchess of Hohenberg at 1115 on June 8th, 114. They were assassinated bythe Black Hand, Serbian Nationalist Gavrilo Princip. The war wasnt started until about a month after the assassination and the archduke and his wife. This incident was what ignited the spark to the greatest and deadliest was known to man up until that time. After this assassination one thing had led to another, and soon enough it created a world level war, leaving about 10 million troops dead. The four main causes in which were held responsible for this were the forming on Alliances, Nationalism came into play, Imperalism was a big part, and lastly militarism.What is this war? It is mud, trenches, blood, rats, lice, bombs, pain, barbed wire, decaying flesh, gas, death, rain, cats, tears, bullets, fear and a loss of faith in all that we once believed in. Otto Dix


Firstly, an alliance is an agreement made between two or more countries to provide help for eachother if it is needed. When an alliance is signed, those countries become known as allies. Alliances were formed to make two groups. These groups were better known as the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. And the Triple Entente (Allies) consisted of Britain, France, and Russia. It was thought at first that alliances would promote peace, since each country would be protected by others in case of war, making it foolish for one country to declare war on another.But this statement is wrong!Alliances cause such a HUGE problem since if one of the allies were to attack one of the central powers or vice versa then all of the countries that were part of the allies of central powers would also be forced to fight, causing maybe a little problem into a HUGE world war. In the case of world war one the attack on Serbia forced all of its allies to come to its defense and fight with them. As you can tell thats why the war was on such a high level, since all of the other countries were forced to fight the battle also.


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Secondly, Nationalism was a big part of world war one, the belief that loyalty to a persons nation and its political and economic goals comes befor any other public loyalty. During the 1800s nationalism got ahold of the people who shared a common language, history, or culture. This is what led to the creation of two new powers- Italy and Germany. Worse case scenario nationalism weakened the eastern European empires of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Ottoman Turkey, This was a problem because these empires ruled national groups that strived for independance.





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Network and Telecommunication Concepts

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A mesh topology is a network topology that has at least two nodes with two or more paths between them. The advantage is that if a node fails or is busy then there is alternate path traffic can be routed to. The disadvantage is the cost since this requires the extra equipment.


A horizontal bus is when all nodes are connected by a single bus or line. This allows every node to receive every transmission. The disadvantage to this topology is that if the bus fails all communications are down.


A Ring topology consists of every node has two branches to it, a receiving branch and a sending branch. As the name implies all nodes are connected in a ring. The advantage is that it rarely suffers from bottlenecks and is easily implemented. The disadvantage is that if the branch between nodes fails then the network is down.


A star topology consists of a central node that receives a transmission from any peripheral node and retransmits that signal to all the nodes including the original broadcaster. The advantage is that if you lose one node the rest of the network still works. The disadvantage is if you lose the central node the network is down. It is also prone to bottlenecks.


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Ethernet is a Protocol standard fro transmitting 10 mbps. Xerox originally developed it. An Ethernet LAN utilizes RG-58 Coax, Category 5 UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) and or Fiber Optics.


An advantage to this network is that is usually very fast, probably the least expensive to implement and extremely reliable. The disadvantage is the setup can be difficult.


Token ring networks pass a token around the network. If the peripheral has the token it can transmit its signal. The token only sits on the peripheral for a limited amount of time.


The advantage is that network traffic is predictable meaning that it can be calculated how long it takes a token to pass through the network. It makes it ideal for factory automation. The disadvantage is that if the sending device fails its sending device may continue to circle the frame essentially locking up the network. There is error handling in place for such things but this puts a lot of traffic on the network to monitor this type of thing. This network is expensive and is not as fast as Ethernet.


Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FIDDI) is used as the high-speed backbone of most large networks. It has the greatest bandwidth and allows for the longest runs. Its primarily transmission media is Fiber Optics but in certain instances can include copper.


The advantage of FIDDI is that is does not emit electrical signals so it cannot easily be tapped. It is immune to EMI and RFI. Unlike Copper, which limits the distance between stations, Fiber can exist between stations approximately miles apart using multimode fiber and longer fore single mode. The disadvantage of FIDDI is that it is costly to install and maintain.


Wireless Networking utilizes radio frequencies to connect two devices. The advantage is no wiring needs to be in place to connect to the network. The big disadvantage it is not secure and you are open to Hacking.


http//www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/fddi.htm#xtocid


http//www.atis.org/tgk/


http//homepages.feis.herts.ac.uk/~simon/networks1/node8.html#SECTION0050000000000000000


http//www.howstuffworks.com/wireless-network.htm


http//www.wired.com/news/wireless/0,18,46187,00.html


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